Japanese Family Members Words and Vocabulary
The Japanese have a name taboo; they avoid using names when possible. . either -kun or -san depending upon their age and their relationship with the one. There are two different ways of calling the Japanese family members, your own family members and 夫婦, ふうふ, fuufu, Married Couple / Husband and Wife. In Japanese, terms for family relationships differ according to which family you're talking about. Sound files show how to pronounce the terms.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Learn how and when to remove this template message A name written in kanji may have more than one common pronunciation, only one of which is correct for a given individual. Conversely, any one name may have several possible written forms, and again, only one will be correct for a given individual. The name " Hajime " may be written with any of the following: This many-to-many correspondence between names and the ways they are written is much more common with male given names than with surnames or female given names, but can be observed in all these categories.
The permutations of potential characters and sounds can become enormous, as some very overloaded sounds may be produced by over distinct Kanji and some Kanji characters can stand for several dozen sounds. This can and does make the collationpronunciationand romanization of a Japanese name a very difficult problem. For this reason, business cards often include the pronunciation of the name as furiganaand forms and documents often include spaces to write the reading of the name in kana usually katakana.
A few Japanese names, particularly family names, include archaic versions of characters. Some names also feature very uncommon kanjior even kanji which no longer exist in modern Japanese. Japanese people who have such names are likely to compromise by substituting similar or simplified characters. This may be difficult for input of kanji in computers, as many kanji databases on computers only include common and regularly used kanji, and many archaic or mostly unused characters are not included.
An odd problem occurs when an elderly person forgets how to write their name in old Kanji that is no longer used. There are two common kanji for sai here. The two sai characters have different meanings: Family names are sometimes written with periphrastic readings, called jukujikunin which the written characters relate indirectly to the name as spoken.
Most Japanese people and agencies have adopted customs to deal with these issues.
Japanese name suffix at Sensei's Library
Address booksfor instance, often contain furigana or ruby characters to clarify the pronunciation of the name. Japanese nationals are also required to give a romanized name for their passport.
The recent use of katakana in Japanese media when referring to Japanese celebrities who have gained international fame has started a fad among young socialites who attempt to invoke a cosmopolitan flair using katakana names as a badge of honor.
Not all names are complicated. Some common names are summarized by the phrase tanakamura "the village in the middle of the rice fields": Despite these difficulties, there are enough patterns and recurring names that most native Japanese will be able to read virtually all family names they encounter and the majority of personal names. Some common interesting names with phonetic puns include Michio Kakuwhich could mean "Draw a path" or "Lead the way", and Tsutomu Hatawhich can mean "Work for the flag nation ", but the Kanji used to write them obscure these meanings.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. July Learn how and when to remove this template message Kanji names in Japan are governed by the Japanese Ministry of Justice's rules on kanji use in names. This is intended to ensure that names can be readily written and read by those literate in Japanese.
Because the legal restrictions on use of such kanji cause inconvenience for those with such names and promote a proliferation of identical names, many recent changes have been made to increase rather than to reduce the number of kanji allowed for use in names. The Sapporo High Court held that it was unlawful for the government to deny registration of a child's name because it contained a kanji character that was relatively common but not included in the official list of name characters compiled by the Ministry of Justice.
Subsequently, the Japanese government promulgated plans to increase the number of kanji "permitted" in names. However, spaces are sometimes used on business cards and in correspondence. July Learn how and when to remove this template message In ancient times, people in Japan were considered the property of the Emperor and their surname reflected the role in the government they served. Names would also be given in the recognition of a great achievement and contribution.
Until the Meiji RestorationJapanese common people people other than kuge and samurai had no surnames, and when necessary, used a substitute such as the name of their birthplace. Merchants were named after their stores or brands for example, Denbei, the owner of Sagamiya, would be Sagamiya Denbeiand farmers were named after their fathers for example, Isuke, whose father was Genbei, would be "Isuke, son of Genbei".
After the Meiji Restoration, the government ordered all commoners to assume surnames in addition to their given names, as part of modernization and Westernization; this was specified in the Family Register Law of This explains, in part, the large number of surnames in Japan, as well as their great diversity of spelling and pronunciation, and makes tracing ancestry past a certain point extremely difficult in Japan.
Both practices have become less common, although many children still have names along these lines. Particularly, even though the symbol was "child", it meant "Lady" and was used only by upper-class females.
Japanese name suffix
It would have been ridiculous to apply to middle-class or lower-class women. Pretty much the same names were used by all classes, but Hana-ko was upper class, while lesser women would be O-Hana-san, with honorific prefix as well as suffix.My Wife Answers Your Questions - International Couple - Japanese and American
Speaking to and of others[ edit ] Main articles: Japanese honorifics and Japanese pronouns The way in which a name is used in conversation depends on the circumstances and the speaker's relationships with the listener and the bearer of the name.
Typically the family name is used, with given names largely restricted to informal situations and cases where the speaker is older than, superior to, or very familiar with the named individual. Japanese people often avoid referring to their seniors or superiors by name at all, using just a title: Using such words sometimes sounds disrespectful, and people will commonly address each other by name, title and honorific even in face-to-face conversations.
This faux pas, however, is readily excused for foreigners. Nicknames[ edit ] Corresponding to any given name there are one or more hypocoristicsaffectionate nicknames. There are two types of stem. One consists of the full given name. The other type of stem is a modified stem derived from the full given name. Close friends, such as schoolmates, lovers, and family members, would use names. Omitting a title is either very friendly or very insulting, depending on the situation.
The Japanese usually use the family name when they use names.
Behind the Name: Japanese Names
Again, children are usually less formal, but the older the people involved, and the more formal the situation, the more polite the language becomes. A complication is that the Japanese use more casual forms when talking about their own family or people associated with themselves, and more polite forms for others.
This sensitivity is invaluable in dealing with Japanese people, everything from seating arrangements to business negotiations depend on it. Younger people are less concerned about these details and are likely to be casual, while older people and traditional people will be more concerned about it. Also note, that if you venture much beyond the standard -san, -sama, -kun, and -chan, you run the risk of offending somebody by using the titles wrong.
The Japanese accord a considerable leeway to foreigners, but if you do try to play the game the Japanese way you might as well do it right.
If you have a native Japanese speaker available they may not want to be your guinea pig either: List of titles N. External links of the form are to Wiktionary ; in some cases links to Wikipedia may be found there. Links of the form no entry ; indicate that Wiktionary has no lemma for the given element. The -san suffix serves as a mark of respect.
A person may be addressed with the -san suffix if the speaker does not know the subject well, but the speaker does not wish to be rude to the subject, or when the subject has a higher social rank than the speaker. Nobody can reasonably take offense at -san. Well, some people can be offended by anything, but that is a different issue.
Girls become -san when entering high school, boys become -san when leaving high school. Kesuke Miyagi Karate Kid -han: Osaka dialect form of -san, probably equivalent in meaning. Sama is used as a polite term of address to someone noticeably older or of higher status than yourself. O-sama is also used as a stand-alone title. A good example is a maid calling her master Taro-sama Taro is used as a Japanese generic name.
I think this is rarely used nowadays. It can also be sarcastic. The title shi may be preferred. Another person known to both speaker and listener could be meant. The reason for using -sama here, I believe, is to express gratitude. Children under about 10 years of age are -chan, and it continues to be used as a term of endearment, especially for girls e.
Parents will probably always call their daughters -chan and their sons -kun. Adults will use -chan as a term of endearment to women with whom they are on close terms. It is also used as a way of describing someone for who you have strong feelings towards such as a girlfriend or a crush that you would only address as chan while talking to friends.