YIN/YANG, PREDATOR/PREY | Jennifer Dimino - angelfirenm.info
), predation rate versus predation risk (Hill & Dunbar, ), and the influ- Predator-prey relationships are best studied from The great ape massacre. The apes, which are found in the forest of south east Asia, produce a variety . Lar gibbons used hoo calls to warn each other of predators but also This model of a bird of prey produced short, low frequency and extremely quiet calls .. comedy for its jokes on the 'Soup Nazi' and same-sex relationships. There are 81 species of raptors known or alleged to prey on primates, if the raptor category is This region has the highest ratio of raptors to total predator numbers (% of the total predator . This three-and-a-half-year-old ape-like child was discovered in South Africa in and was . New York: McGraw-Hill.
This is a milder form of the trope since Tiger never sought to harm Fievel or apparently any other mousebut cats are predators of mice, and Tiger opposed other cats to protect mice, so the trope definitely applies. The protagonist of Dreamworks' How to Train Your Dragon constructs a weighted-net launcher that successfully knocks a dreaded Night Fury dragon out of the sky during a dragon raid.
Hiccup ventures into the hills to find the fallen dragon and slay it. Upon finding his objective, however, Hiccup takes mercy on the creature, and actually works to hide it from his fellow Vikings. When young Hogarth encounters Brad Bird 's The Iron Gianthe finds the robot to be docile and childlike; this is suggested to be the result of a dent in its head upon landing on Earth. However, once the robot goes into Papa Wolf mode, it deploys enough advanced weaponry to eradicate a battalion with frightening ease.
The director's commentary mentions that the robot was meant to be a military strike probe, designed to eradicate or decimate resistance as a precursor to an Alien Invasion. Fortunately for everyone, The Power of Friendship restores the robot to its Gentle Giant mode, whereupon it makes a Heroic Sacrifice to save the townsfolk. In The Lion KingSimba the lion fiercely protects his surrogate parents, Pumbaa the warthog and Timon the meerkat, from the hungry lioness Nala.
In fact Timon, initially reluctant to adopt the orphaned Simba due to him being a predator, changes his mind after he realizes he can exploit this trope.
In MadagascarAlex the lion's friendship with Marty the zebra is threatened when Alex's Horror Hunger kicks in after they arrive into the wild. However, when Marty is attacked by a pack of fossa Madagascar's native predatorsAlex comes to his rescue in a Big Damn Heroes moment.
In Finding NemoNigel the pelican is, of course, a fish-eater. However, he has regular conversations with the fish living in an aquarium in a dentist's office and is quite touched by Nemo's story. Upon learning that Marlin is Nemo's father searching for his son, Nigel rescues him and Dory first from the beak of a fellow pelican, then from a flock of seagulls.
Flik tells the circus bugs about Hopper was fear of birds. Film — Live-Action As with Lion King, the humans fleeing to safety in Daybreakers quickly realize when the sympathetic vampire hematologist Edward hides them in his car from some other vampires who are hunting them that it's a good idea to enlist him as an ally.
To this end, one of them goes so far as to donate some of her blood in a cup and insist that he drink it to keep his hunger at bay. They also are later shown to be running their human-smuggling and vampire-cure-seeking operation under the protection of a vampire Senator who's got a similar deal worked out with them. An extreme example heavily based on real events during WWII.
Oskar Schindler started as a businessman and Nazi Party who used Jewish laborers as virtual slaves to manufacture war materials. His original goal was to make money for himself and support the Nazi war machine. When he discovered that his Jewish employees were slated for death, he did everything in his power to save as many as he could.
At the end of the movie, what should have been his moment of triumph for saving more than Jews instead saw him breaking down in sorrow and shame that he didn't save more, that he still had anything money or possessions to his name by which he could have saved more. This also gets inverted somewhat by his The Hunter Becomes the Hunted situation after the war; in gratitude for his saving their lives, the Jews help get him past the Allies who are out rounding up Nazis without his having to answer too many awkward questions.
Predator Turned Protector
Though the film doesn't go into detail about this, historicallythose Jews helped smuggle him all the way out of Europe to Argentina. The titular characters plan on killing the princess Aurora on her Dangerous 16th Birthdaybut by the end of the film she becomes Aurora's guardian.
Demonstrated while being subverted in the first 3 Terminator films. In the first filmthe T the titular Terminator was a cold, emotionless, killing machine whose sole existence was to kill Sarah Connor and thus prevent John Connor from being born and creating the resistance in the future. In the second film however, the T, while still emotionless, was now a protector of the now-born John Connor and his sole purpose was to protect him from the more dangerous T Fully Justified in the third film as the T reveals that he killed John Connor in the year During that time though, he had been reprogrammed by Kate Brewster John Connor's wife to prepare and protect John and Kate from the inevitable Judgement Day.
However, he is mesmerized by her beauty and becomes her protector, defending her from the dinosaurs and other monstrous beasts of Skull Island. Skull Island Kong is explicitly stated to protect the island's human inhabitants from the other predators, most notably the Skullcrawlers. And unlike prior incarnations there's no mention of offering him the occasional human sacrifice. In Snowpiercer Curtis Everett plays this role for Basile, whose mother he killed so that he could eat him because of the dearth of food during the first month.
While hunting the Indominus rex in Jurassic WorldHoskins forces Owen to use his pack of raised raptors Blue, Charlie, Echo, and Delta to track down the rampaging dinosaur alongside a team of InGen special ops. After finding it, the Indominus rex manages to persuade the raptors to turn on their human handlers due to said Indominus rex being part-raptorand all hell breaks loose.
However, after Hoskins is killed by Delta, the raptors come to their senses and turn on the Indominus in order to protect Parental Substitute Owen from it. Short film The Golden Fish has a cat enter an apartment, where it sees a goldfish flopping about on a counter after it leaped out of its bowl.
The cat picks the fish up, and puts it back in the goldfish bowl. What makes this amazing is that it was done with real animals, a real cat and a real goldfish. His actions were not enough to save her, so despite hating her son, Harry Potter whose father, James Potter, had made Snape miserable at HogwartsSnape acted through the entire series to save Harry from all harm.
Note, however, that protecting Harry doesn't preclude Snape from treating him like crap the whole time.
The Cullens, a coven of vampires, are 'vegetarians' do not drink human blood due to choice and a treaty with the local werewolves and even act to protect a human Bellathus fitting if loosely under this trope. In the end, he kills the mother from the hawk's viewpoint this is beyond stupid, as she could have produced more food but watches over the babies.
In another, Cassie learns of the location of skunk kits their mother was hit by a Yeerk weapon when Tobias says he caught and ate one. He ends up helping to guard them until the mother comes out of the vet clinic. In Arcia ChroniclesRoman summons a lynx from the woods and binds its being to Prince Stefan, turning it into his supernatural protector. When Stefan is killed, the lynx transfers its loyalty to Gerika, his beloved.
Frisby the mouse saves her family using advice received from the Great Owl, whose usual diet includes mice. He's later revealed to be an ally of the rats, which he'd also normally be expected to eat. Alluded to in Children of the Night. One of the psivamps has been fighting his need to feed, and the others realize once he heads back to their base that he's given in.
He tells them a folk tale about a lion cub adopted by a herd of sheep, who grew up thinking he was a sheep until the day a pack of wolves attacked the flock. The others figure he's gone over to their side, he doesn't bother telling them that the story ends with the lion killing all the wolves. He'd chowed down on a couple rapists so he could act as The Mole.
This ensured his survival when the castle he had lived in was conquered.
Since the enemy spies wanted a husbandthey never turned him in to their superiors, but married him and did everything in their power to make him happy. Subverted in the Hurog series, Jakoven reminisces about how he comforted a boy who had been raped and whose parents had been killed by Jakoven's own armies.
However, when this happens, it is pretty clear that he sexually abused the boy, and has been keeping the now adult man as his sex slave ever since.
In Terry Pratchett 's The Hogfather the Tooth Fairy protects children by making sure that bad wizard's can't get their teeth, which would give them the power to control the children through magic.
In later seasons of Buffy, Spike develops a crush on Buffy, who is the natural predator of his species. As a result, he stops rooting for her death and starts protecting her, oftentimes against her will. He also starts acting as something of an older brother to Buffy's sister, to the point where Buffy drops her off at Spike's when she needs a babysitter - because the evil monster that lives on human blood will protect her.
In the Series 8 Doctor Who episode "Into the Dalek", the eponymous Dalek nicknamed "Rusty" decides to protect the other sentient species in the universe and destroying its Dalek brethren after seeing true beauty. It's just a temporary glitch that the Doctor manages to fix, resulting in the death of most of the people on the ship. On True Bloodafter much of the world's vampire population becomes infected with Hep-V, which causes them to become violent, Jessica Hamby vows to protect the Bellefleur family as her penance for previously killing three of Andy's daughters.
An year old vampire named Nick Knight is a police detective protecting the citizens of Toronto.
Seize the Prey: Raptor Predation on Primates
He seeks redemption for all of the human beings he's killed over the years. The SA-X, which had spent the entire game hunting Samus, shows up at the last second to defend her from a very aggressive Omega Metroid.
In the The Elder Scrolls V: This is particularly noticeable since at least two members of the Dawnguard want her dead. It's not acknowledged by those races though as especially the Blades want him dead no matter what since he IS a dragon. Such behavior was never observed in response to other avian vocalizations. Furthermore, the howler monkeys from the reintroduction area retained an anti-predator response to Harpy Eagle calls several months after the Harpy Eagles had been removed Gil-da-Costa et al.
This rapid acquisition and retention of an anti-predator response in primates to a newly introduced avian predator shows how strongly raptor predation can influence the behavior of primates. Raptors may even elicit anti-predator behavior in primates without regularly subjecting them to predation. Strong stereotypic anti-predator behaviors have been exhibited by diurnal lemur species on Madagascar toward birds of prey, despite the absence of regular predation by modern raptors in the area.
Although 17 species of primate-eating raptors currently inhabit Madagascar, most predate upon small weighing less than 2 kg primates that are arboreal and nocturnal Hart Raptors, such as Black Kites Milvus migransMadagascar Harrier-Hawks Polyboroides radiatusand Madagascar Buzzards Buteo brachypterus are relatively small and would have extreme difficulty in subduing and killing an adult lemur.
So why do raptors evoke strong anti-predator behavior in the lemurs? The answer to this question may lie with bird bones discovered in southwestern Madagascar and belonging to a large raptor of the genus Aquila, which is thought to have gone extinct relatively recently only about a few thousand years ago and that would have been capable of hunting adult lemurs.
This research indicates that raptor predation is a strong selective force that retains anti-predator behaviors and conserves them to a high degree.
Group composition can be altered by raptor predation as well.
Coevolution between raptors and their primate prey is evident in primate polyspecific associations, which are groups of two or more species that feed, travel, or rest together Hart and Sussman The geographical occurrence of primate polyspecific associations corresponds to regions that contain large, monkey-eating raptors. Mixed groups are regularly observed in the forests of South America, occasionally in Central America, and rarely in Madagascar and southeast Asia.
In areas like Madagascar and southeast Asia, where large raptors capable of taking adult diurnal primates appear to be absent, polyspecific associations are infrequent and of short duration Terborgh The threat of raptor predation may be the major factor responsible for driving the evolution of polyspecific life. What anti-predation benefits do these multi-species aggregations provide? First, individuals living in large groups run a smaller risk of being singled out by a predator than individuals from small groups.
Second, the chance of detecting a predator likely increases as a function of group size and may result in increased individual foraging time due to a decreased need for vigilance per individual. Finally, since different species are represented, multiple males are present, which may deter some predators.
Seize the Prey: Raptor Predation on Primates | Prized Writing
Why do these primate species not simply increase their own group sizes? Though raptors can affect primates in various ways through predation, it is important to consider that most organisms have several different predators and that they may each put different, even opposing selection pressures on a particular trait.
For instance, small body size might be advantageous for escaping pursuit hunters like chimpanzees Pan troglodytes but disadvantageous for encounters with raptors Treves Evidence for Predation on Early Hominids The possibility of raptor predation on human ancestors is evident in one of the most studied hominid skulls ever, known as the Taung child Australopithecus africanus. This three-and-a-half-year-old ape-like child was discovered in South Africa in and was presumed to have been killed by a predatory cat.
The cause of its death remained unquestioned untilwhen Ron Clarke and Lee Berger published an article hypothesizing that a large bird of prey was responsible for killing and collecting not only most of the fauna found at the Taung site, but the Taung child as well Berger and Clarke This research led to much debate, including a correspondence in Nature about whether a predatory bird the size of a Crowned Hawk-Eagle weighing on average 4.
Such a feat initially seems doubtful, as the child was estimated to weigh more than double the bird kg. Biomechanical information about bird load-lifting capacity indicates that a raptor the size of a Crowned Hawk-Eagle would be capable of carrying prey of only up to 6.
Observations in the field, however, have recorded Crowned Hawk-Eagles preying successfully on large primates such as adolescent mandrills Mandrillus sphinx adults reach 60 pounds and young bonobos Pan paniscus adults reach nearly pounds Hart and Sussman While the debate about the lifting capabilities of raptors continued, a number of scientists began studying the collecting habits of raptors around the world.
Their study revealed punctures and scratches found on many of the monkey skulls that suggest raptors might have preyed upon our human ancestors. According to McGraw, Crowned Hawk-Eagles leave very distinctive beak and talon punctures around the face and eye sockets. Gouge marks in the orbits were identified as being critical to identifying large bird of prey feeding behavior and the skull of the Taung child has these same kinds of marks Science DailyMcGraw et al.
Approximately half of the bones gathered from underneath Crowned-Hawk Eagle nests came from primates. While most of the bones belonged to smaller monkey species, weighing from 2. Most of the larger bones were from mangabeys, which are not only the largest species in the Tai forest but which live primarily on the ground like our human ancestors.Predator Prey Relationship Examples and Their Role in the Ecosystem
Mangabeys occur at lower densities than other monkey species in the Tai rainforest and are presumably harder to find and attack by a raptor than arboreal species. Despite this, their bones occur in nests more often than by chance alone, suggesting that Crowned Hawk-Eagles are specifically targeting these larger primates Science Daily ; McGraw et al.
Raptors are not only thought to have preyed upon our primate ancestors, but to have preyed upon them often Viegas Fossil remains of primates on Rusinga Island, Kenya from the Early Miocene about 16 to 23 million years ago indicate predation from both mammals and raptors. While the presence of gnawing on the ends of fossil long bones as well as multiple tooth pits along the shafts is consistent with damage produced by modern mammalian carnivores, irregular puncture marks found on fossils resemble bone damage caused by modern raptors when de-fleshing carcasses Jenkins Considering that our human ancestors were frequently exposed to predation, we may have to alter the long-running perception that humans evolved as hunters.
Robert Sussman, professor of physical anthropology at Washington University, argues that the idea of humans as hunters is a false one that arose from a Judeo-Christian ideology of humans being inherently evil and aggressive.
Humans may have actually evolved as prey animals rather than as predators. Predation can affect the behavior, group structure, and body size of a species, so if humans evolved as prey rather than predator, it is possible that humans today have retained certain behaviors associated with prey status.
Sussman states that features such as intelligence and cooperation present in modern humans developed from attempts of ancestors to outwit predators Viegas Studies show that present day raptors do affect behavior and group structure in primates and that ancient raptors likely preyed, at least occasionally, upon early hominids. While such research suggests that raptors may have been an important selective force in primate evolution, early hominids were likely exposed to various other predators, each one possibly exerting unique selection pressures.
Therefore, we can view the limited fossil evidence for raptor predation, such as the Taung child, as either a sample from a series of isolated predation incidents or as a representative sample of widespread predation by raptors. Even if raptors did not prey upon early hominids often, research shows that modern primates retain strong anti-predator responses to raptors even in the absence of regular predation.
Thus the threat of predation may sometimes be as powerful in modifying behavior as the act of predation itself. Eagle involvement in accumulation of the Taung child fauna. Journal of Human Evolution The load of the Taung child. Eagles, Hawks, and Falcons of theWorld. Monospecific vs polyspecific life: A comparative study of foraging and anti-predatory tactics in a community of Cercopithecus monkeys.
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Rapid acquisition of an alarm response by a neotropical primate to a newly introduced avian predator. Proceedings from the Royal Society of London The enigma of antipredator behavior in lemurs: International Journal of Primato1ogy