Anthropocentrism is the belief that human beings are the most important entity in the universe. It is a major concept in the field of environmental ethics and environmental philosophy, One of the first extended philosophical essays addressing environmental ethics, John Passmore's Man's Responsibility for Nature has. J. Baird Callicott, "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair" Environmental Ethics 2 ( 4) In all the other affairs of life, man never hesitates to classify and judge, but when it . logical and unified form the largest possible circle of formal relationships. Robert Grossteste De iride published in Beiträge zur Geschichte der. Environmental ethics is the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral for the sake of man” and that the value of non-human things in nature is merely instrumental. Norton , de Shalit , Light and Katz ). The questioning and rethinking of the relationship of human beings with the.
Urbanization effects the environment because of deforestation and changing lake levels, groundwater conditions, etc. Deforestation and urbanization go hand in hand. Deforestation may cause flooding, declining stream flow, and changes in riverside vegetation. The changing vegetation occurs because when trees cannot get adequate water they start to deteriorate, leading to a decreased food supply for the wildlife in an area. A view of Earth's troposphere from an airplane.
Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity accompanied by thunderwhich occurs during thunderstorms and certain other natural conditions. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by the planet's gravity. The remaining gases are often referred to as trace gases,  among which are the greenhouse gases such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Filtered air includes trace amounts of many other chemical compounds.
Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor and suspensions of water droplets and ice crystals seen as clouds.
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Many natural substances may be present in tiny amounts in an unfiltered air sample, including dustpollen and sporessea sprayvolcanic ashand meteoroids. Various industrial pollutants also may be present, such as chlorine elementary or in compoundsfluorine compounds, elemental mercuryand sulphur compounds such as sulphur dioxide [SO2].
The ozone layer of the Earth's atmosphere plays an important role in depleting the amount of ultraviolet UV radiation that reaches the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes.
Layers of the Atmosphere[ edit ] Principal layers[ edit ] Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers. These layers are mainly determined by whether temperature increases or decreases with altitude.
From highest to lowest, these layers are: The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward, mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. The top of the thermosphere is the bottom of the exosphere, called the exobase. It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere.
The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude.
Environmental Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere. Other layers Within the five principal layers determined by temperature are several layers determined by other properties.
The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere. It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. The homosphere and heterosphere: The homosphere includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere. The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen, the lightest element.
This initiative implemented the transformation of excess sidewalk space in the Meatpacking District of Manhattan into public space. CHE has five subgroups that specialize in aiding specific populations: Being an interdisciplinary field is difficult because it lacks a solid definition and purpose. It is hard for the field to fit into organizational structures. Proshanksy was one of the founders of environmental psychology and was quoted as saying "As I look at the field of environmental psychology today, I am concerned about its future.
It has not, since its emergence in the early s grown to the point where it can match the fields of social, personality, learning or cognitive psychology.
To be sure, it has increased in membership, in the number of journals devoted to it, and even in the amount of professional organizational support it enjoys, but not enough so that one could look at any major university and find it to be a field of specialization in a department of psychology, or, more importantly, in an interdisciplinary center or institute". With environmental psychology being such a diverse field with many different approaches, students have a variety of programs to choose from.
Arizona State University offers a master's in Environmental Resources, which takes more of a planning approach to the field. The Environmental Psychology Ph. D program at the CUNY Graduate Center takes a multidisciplinary approach to examining and changing "the serious problems associated with the urban environment with a view towards affecting public policy" using social science theory and research methods. As discussed in detail on the program website, "recent research has addressed the experiences of recently housed homeless people, the privatization of public space, socio-spatial conflicts, children's safety in the public environment, relocation, community based approaches to housing, the design of specialized environments such as museums, zoos, gardens and hospitals, the changing relationships between home, family and work, the environmental experiences of gay men and lesbians, and access to parks and other urban 'green spaces'.
D in Human Behavior and Design studies in environmental psychology, interior design, sustainable design studies, human factors and ergonomics, and facility planning and management. Of two degree paths, the Environmental Design and Health path includes study with community practitioners and researchers in design and related fields, including health, community design, and public policy. Research typically includes data collection and engaged research practices of design thinking and participatory design.
This area of investigation has potential to create innovative health and educational partnerships, economic opportunities and neighborhood initiatives and relates to the strategic mission of the university to be highly engaged in civic sustainability.
The focus is on how people are affected by both physical and virtual environments, as well as how people affect nature. The program offers courses on environmental behaviour, environment and neuroscience, human factors, virtual environments and cognitive design, change management and greening organizations and architecture and estetics.
Dissertations have examined such topics as environmental aesthetics, spatial cognition, ethnic enclaves, neighborhood decline, neighborhood satisfaction, restorative and livable places, and behavior change. Prescott College offers a master's program that incorporates a number of the foundations of environmental psychology as well. The sub-fields in which the program provides includes environmental education, environmental studies, ecology, botany, resource policy, and planning.
Another description about the program is as follows: The focus is on how people affect and are affected by environments, and includes a pragmatic approach to promoting environmental stewardship behavior, as well as a focus on how "nearby nature" affects people's mental vitality, physical health and well-being.
An emerging theme is helping people to remain optimistic while learning to respond well to increasingly difficult biophysical circumstances. Another strain of environmental psychology developed out of ergonomics in the s.
The beginning of this movement can be traced back to David Canter 's work and the founding of the "Performance Research Unit" at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland, inwhich expanded traditional ergonomics to study broader issues relating to the environment and the extent to which human beings were "situated" within it cf situated cognition.
Canter led the field in the UK for years and was the editor of the Journal of Environmental Psychology for over 20 years, but has recently turned his attention to criminology. The University of Surrey was the first institution that offered an architectural psychology course in the UK starting in Since then, there have been over graduates from over 25 countries.
Sc in Environmental Psychology are automatically members, has been undertaking research for more than thirty years. EPRG's mission is to gain a better understanding of the environmental and psychological effects of space, no matter the size, with help from social sciences, psychology, and methodologies.
There are four categories under which the research projects fall: Other universities in the UK now offer courses on the subject, which is an expanding field.
See the APA 's list of additional environmental psychology graduate programs here: Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Other significant researchers and writers in this field include: Department of Psychology University of Victoria.
Principles and Practice 5th edition, Lynch and his research into the formation of mental maps Francis T. The Behavioral Basis of Design, but is also the author of numerous other books, including Design Awareness, and hundreds of articles. Swan professor, media producer and writer who authored one of the first popular articles on environmental education, produced symposiums on the Gaia Hypothesis and the significance of place, produced several documentary films on environmental topics and Co-Executive Producer of the "Wild Justice" TV series on the National Geographic Channel.