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Without it history of early Croatian culture is dispossessed of one arm. It was great to find out that Vladimir Goss is doing just that — filling the gap. After that, publications came into view. Goss composed a mosaic of artistic jewels which he managed to find and recognize.
Around the time that we met in person in the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb published a splendidly illustrated catalogue with an exceptional study: A whole new world of spirituality and art, which was misplaced and therefore denied to us, opened unexpectedly in front of us. Figural stone sculptures in the Benedictine monastery that may seem rough, but by their facial expressions are extremely spiritualized, reminding the author of this text, despite the cultural-historic squintness of experience of the prehistoric Lepenski Vir, giving this knowingly composed and very competently interpreted collection a strong seal of a major artistic creation.
I continued more and more to be in company of Vladimir Goss without the life bringing us closer. We were truly brought together only by Perun. And this is literally so. It is also the name of the Slavic thunder god. The peak and the name were already known, and written about.
No one really dared notice even obvious traces of old Slavic religion. Thus the name of thunderer god was barely noticed even on the Istrian peninsula, despite the necessity of pushing forward Slavic antiquity. Perun in the vicinity of Split was even better known, but the treatment was similar.
Art History – the Future is Now. Studies in Honor of Professor Vladimir P. Goss
Same applied to another Perun, a mountain in the southern part of Rama basin. All interest had faded away. Nobody dared pay any attention. It happens that those who dislike pointing out this antiquity and discovering such continuities accuse us, who are systematically and persistently researching it of covering the Croatian land with names of the Russian pagan gods, as if we had made up those place names.
An atmosphere has been created where even such argumentation might become likely. These fragments can be recognized, and by comparing them, ritual formulas that tell us about hidden mythical happenings and relations on which our world is based, as we experience it directly, can be reconstructed. Those that know these relations that are covert to the ordinary human being, and use correct wording and formulas, followed by right actions, will gain rule of that world.
This is the sense of rituals and its hieratic poetry. Indian Brahmans are champions in developing and elaborating such ritual legend. By means of oral literature, which was, due to relatively late Christianization and long duration of oral culture in the early middle ages, exceptionally rich and diversified in nations of Slavic tradition, a remarkable amount of pre-Christian ritual heritage, that has been transformed into other genres of oral literature: Parts of sacred ancient chants can be recognized primarily because usually they do not fit completely into new textual structures where they have been placed, not to say hidden.
Hidden so that the stern Mr. Reverend Parish Priest cannot easily see them for what they are. Baltic Lithuanian and Latvian oral legends are no less rich in that aspect. Of all IndoEuropean legends they are the most related to the Slavic. Together they relay to us a non-negligible part of pre-Christian religious legend which was Indo-European and thus related to Germanic as preserved in the Icelandic Edda, the Indian and Iranian as preserved in the Veda and Avesta, to the Hellenic, where transformed remains can be recognized in the Homeric epic and in the tragedies.
Hittite ritual texts that reached us carved in cuneiform script on hard clay tablets are also of importance. Comparing fragments of the same textual transmission in this frame allows us to somewhat reach even the Indo-European temporal level.
Together with the Slavic, the Baltic represents just one offshoot of the indoeuropean oral legend, being extremely archaic due to historical circumstances, lasting unchanged for centuries, and therefore telling us very much about the primeval nature of Indo-European religious poetry and of the religious conception that it expressed. A broad field opened to research. Slovenia the author of this text recognized important fragments of the ancient Slavic and preChristian ritual songs, where mythical happenings are being narrated and mythical relations displayed.
There was room for going even further than Ivanov and Toporov, so since he started to work on the issue. After receiving acknowledgement at the International Congress of Slavic Studies in Sofia in he consistently continued his research and published the results. The results were broadened and enhanced by Vitomir Belaj adding the ethnological point of view.
He on the other hand received additional incentive from the Slovenian archaeologist Andrej Pleterski. Thus the negative judgment on studying ancient Slavic religion lost its power, and the research started to blossom. Besides having reconstructed Slavic pre-Christian ritual texts I also gave my full attention to traces of this ancient religion on Croatian territory.
In the first place the names of ancient gods as place names. Just this visual connection can be regarded as first rate monument that might also be exploited for tourist purposes. Here, in as much as the circumstances allowed, I started field research. Although the research did not fail, the results would have remained very scarce due to my lack of strength, but just then matters did start moving on a broader plan. His thinking ran across similar lines as when I was observing Mosor from Sustipan in Split.
He was satisfied that it was a first-class cultural and historic monument, and represented an excellent basis for developing tourism.
Being a regular listener of my lectures on reconstruction of ancient Slavic hieratic poetry texts at the Faculty of Art History — the Future is Now. Humanities in Zagreb, he immediately called on me. At that time he had no knowledge about my research and their results. A free group of independent researchers was thus created, working together by researching trails of our ancient pre-Christian religion.
In this we were joined by Vladimir Peter Goss. He too joined the group and has belonged to it ever since, immediately showing a lively interest for my research. Such a big interest that I was taken by surprise.
- BLONDE JOKE : STEREOTYPES WE LIVE BY 2
Thus Vladimir Goss and myself started meeting and conversing more often. It turned out that we had many subjects, more than we were aware of. Goss was not only into Romanesque and Gothic art between Sava and Drava, he was also looking for remains of old religion and endeavored to decipher Slavic religious interpretation of those terrains. He brought the entire area, where he discovered quite an array of relevant data, closer to us. All this created a broad basis for a fruitful discussion.
Calaméo - BLONDE JOKE : STEREOTYPES WE LIVE BY 2
He collected a multitude of place names whose relevance in context of tracking ancient religion could be recognized as undoubtedly important at the first glance.
A great amount of research, time and vigor was still required in order to come into open. It was only then that I directly experienced what a productive writer Vladimir Peter Goss was. He overwhelmed me with prints and photocopies of his articles, one more interesting than the next. He presented me with many of his new books. I was not surprised by their high scientific level, I was already aware of it. I learned a lot about cultural impulses brought about by the Art History — the Future is Now.
Medieval contacts between Slavonia and Hungary became vivid and full of life previously unknown to me. I only regretted that I could not feel this to be generally known and taken as it should be, to make everyone feel as rich as we actually were.
I wish that I was wrong, because the ways the real knowledge reaches those who will fertilize it are incomprehensible. The shivers caused by its profound attractiveness, and by the completeness of his failure.
It was not possible to read that name and remain calm. In his notorious book on ancient Croatian art Zagreb the Austrian art historian, professor in Graz and Vienna Josef Strzygowski stood for, and reasoned about, his opinion that peculiar forms of Croatian visual arts, and especially architecture and interlace ornaments, were due to a tradition of wooden artifacts that the settlers from the North brought with them when they settled in the Roman Dalmatia, who finally transferred this tradition onto stone and into decorative stonework.
The settlers from the North would have left, having incorporated the southern heritage from the antiquity, durable evidence of their heritage in the artifacts made by stone masons and builders once they moved into the Roman province of Dalmatia.
Next to the autochthonous pre-historical and the antique Mediterranean visual heritage, there is a northern heritage, deriving from the Great migration, marking us specifically as Croats. That is why we call the visual expression of this heritage Early Croatian. Also, assuming that this theory holds water, and taking into account the exceptional analogy of early medieval Armenian architecture with Early Croatian need not only be parallel developments on distant margins of the Byzantine cultural domain; it can be explained again as the same tradition of wood construction and decoration that, coming to the South, replicated itself into stone.
This impressive affinity then ceases to be only typological, but becomes genetic: Thus Croats can find in Armenia proof of their own individuality. The writer of this text, when reading his book, was quite aware of that. This is the reason why the theory, Art History — the Future is Now. Ljubo Karaman, champion of history of early medieval art at that time, was right.
Therefore, when I understood that Vladimir Goss has written about Strzygowski, I got slightly anxious. However, after starting to read, it was immediately clear that this is not so. There was no room for doubt and uncertainty. But Goss made a distinction: On the contrary, Vladimir Goss considered them very important and unjustly neglected and started looking carefully for cultural elements brought by settlers from the North to the soil of Roman provinces, inviting others to join him in this pursuit.
Here, Goss has demonstrated the first convincing results. I suddenly realized that, by understanding him better and better, I was getting more and more involved.
Within the frame of integral display of literature and entire education in early medieval Croatian culture those silent centuries were supposed to somewhat begin to talk. At the time two completely different cultural worlds were confronted there. Imperial Dalmatia maintained the continuity of antique life, Christianity and religious organization, municipalities and literacy.
All this was very weak, but nevertheless survived. Philological Studies on our Earliest Middle Ages. Despite incomplete and scarce results of such research an integral mythical picture of the world can be outlined with the help of the necessary interpretative effort. The Russian philologist Boris Alexandrovich Uspenskij contributed remarkably to this research. By stepping into their trail I managed to bring dark ages under Slavic rule to talk, together with the entire world of Slavic languages, because at that time the Croatian Slavic territory could hardly be distinguished from the rest of the Slavic world.
Some ritual religious texts telling about mythical conditions and happenings could be reconstructed, resulting in an image of religious experience of the world, and certain legal texts indicating about legal order and judicial processes in the territories under Slavic rule could be reconstructed.
This clearly demonstrates that their principality, and both introduced themselves as duces Chroatorum, was in facta Sclavinia, as mentioned by Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
All this, ancient religion as well as ancient legislation, which cannot be strictly separated from each other, was brought into Roman Dalmatia in course of migration from the north, the same migration that brought into Dalmatia Slavic at that time proto-Slavic language, as we can discern ever more clearly.
I was very deep into it without Strzygowski ever occurring to me. Contrary to him, my interest was not in artifacts but in texts, into traditional sets of words and their original meaning.
Spontaneously it seemed to me that they were something completely different. Only the writing of Vladimir Peter Goss on and about Strzygowski opened my eyes.
Artifacts or texts, both were elements of culture brought from the northern ambience and preserved in the southern context remaining visible to our research. Although not obvious at first glance, both are evidence disclosing a cultural layer which significantly defines us. Research and knowledge of our culture will remain incomplete if this layer does not receive full attention.
This is why Goss is right: Strzygowski is important, if not by his results and his theory, then by the questions he raised and viewpoints that he brought into consideration. Since the moment when we started to converse about it I had a real interlocutor. No need to elaborate what an incentive it was to me. However on one occasion I was confused and alarmed by Vladimir Peter Goss. He denominates opponents of his research orientation, historians of art and culture who do not see, Art History — the Future is Now.
But I, who am standing together with him, completely supporting his orientation and having already given my research contribution, consider myself a bearer and continuator of humanist tradition, and therefore a humanist. I will join every dispute with restricted scope, with whoever opposes the widening of horizons of space, but not against humanists.
Humanists are the salt of earth. They seek and study mislaid layers of linguistic expression, cultivating and sustaining their values.
They create an atmosphere that is beautiful and therefore worth living. The more they cover the better they are. A humanist is better if he remembers that Publius Ovidius Naso was not just one of greatest Latin poets, but also one who wrote in the language of the Getae, which he learned when banished in Tomis on Black sea, and still better if he regrets that this too was not preserved, instead of forgetting about it as something negligible in the name of classical Latin excellency.
A humanist that includes other ancient italic languages, even Etruscan, into Latin expressive treasure, is a better humanist than the one that excludes all this. Humanistic tradition also shows this trait of exclusivity by rejecting, in the name of Cicero and Vergil, all remaining Latin, needless to say everything that is not Latin. Petrarca too thought that he gained poetical immortality by his Virgilian epic poem Africa, where he described the roman destruction of Carthage, and considered his sonnets to Laura in native Tuscan dialect as personal and unimportant.
However today few people know of his epic poem and everyone with any education knows about his sonnets and Laura. Thus the humanistic exclusivism denies itself eloquently, and there is no reason to consider it a valuable and constitutive component of humanistic tradition.
Those of us who include into our humanistic horizon the layer inherited from northern migrants are certainly better humanists than those that only see antique heritage in our territory and only want to know about it.
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They should be argued with, like Goss does, but not as with humanists, which would then deny us as such, but as with inferior humanists who are not up to challenges of fabric on which they work and care for.
It is evident that within a necessarily very restricted frame Vladimir Peter Goss is an important person in our scientific community, its valuable member, especially among those that are involved in cultural history in any of its disciplines. He is imperturbable in his singularity.
He brought a lot of valuable from America, never permitting it to dominate him. He remained completely ours. I wish him a lot of successful work and creative energy, to his satisfaction and joy, and to benefit and enrichment for all of us.
Pramenovi magle sa sjevera pod jasnim suncem Mediterana. Text translation from Croatian: Damit wurde das Gebiet der Biskupija zeremoniell sakralisiert. Sie musste seinerzeit ziemlich dicht besiedelt gewesen sein, denn in alten Dokumenten hiess dieser Ort schlicht ad quinquae Ecclesias in campo im alten Kroatisch: So einen heiligen Ort kulturgeschichtlich zu interpretieren ist wohl ein sehr gewagtes Unternehmen.
Nachher gelang es ihm, seine Erkenntnisse auch auf das heutige Slowenien auszubreiten. Diese drei Punkte bilden ein Dreieck. Nur die Eckpunkte sind festgesetzt worden. Aber diese heidnichen Dreiecke zeichnen sich durch gewisse Merkmale aus.
Die dynamische Spannung, welche zwischen den Dreien herrscht, wurde auf die Form des Dreiecks projiziert. So, das war ziemlich einfach. Diese Diagonale wird dann im Dreieck zur Hypotenuse. Das sieht in der Natur irgenwie so aus: Ein solches Dreieck hatte also eine wichtige politische Funktion.
Das gibt den Historikern ein post quem non Kriterium bei der Bewertung solcher Erscheinungen. Es gelang mir mehrere solche Dreiecke auf dem kroatischen Gebiet zu finden. Das deutete wahrscheinlich auf andere Funktionen dieser Dreiecke hin. Sie dienten wohl den Fruchtbarkeitsriten. Preserve the land for all children, and love it, as God loves us.
As we are part of the land, you too are part of the land. This earth is precious to us. With occasional aberrations, where Indian characters receive individual features, these two stereotypes have been alternately prevailing in American cinematography to the present day. Sretno ropstvo, kakav oksimoron! An equally frequent stereotype is that Indians have no facial hair, which stems from stories of Winnetou, probably the most famous imaginary Indian character in the world.
Indians were further portrayed as good scouts, and in films where they are not the bad guys, they were shown in a folkloristic and romanticist fashion, like people from some past times.
Unfortunately, they mostly are people from past times, when we think about how many of them were exterminated since the others inhabited America, as Indians were there way before the European settlers and are hence called the First Nations. Indian women were often presented as eager to have sexual intercourse with anybody.
This was used as alibi to white men for many cases of sexual abuse and murder of Indian women. Young made an interesting observation that there is something Indian in the sports madness of Americans. The contemporary American English language, especially the jargons, abound innames for blacks and Indians, which are mostly pejorative for example, various derivatives from nigger, colouredbut British English is also not devoid of such names.
Listing and explaining them here would go too far. In the presentation of Afro-Americans in the American culture, the dehumanising aspect of stereotyping is more pronounced. Since African slaves were not fought against, but bought and brought in like cattle, the stoic warrior stereotype is replaced by the stereotype of the stupid, primitive and often rough-hewn slave or servant, childishly dependent on the care of the whites.
In the late 19th and early 20th century, presentations of Afro-Americans were extremely racist, depicting Afro-Americans as subhuman,19 i. Faceless Mammy with a baby and ladle. Raymond Wallace, http: I naravno, bolesno je pretila. Brojni su ostali stereotipi bazirani na filmovima, uglavnom o prerijskim Indijancima: U Zagrebu sam The character of Uncle Tom served as basis for the stereotype of the satisfied and obedient servant Tom.
Mammy is a caricature of a grinning black woman with a prominent mouth and headscarf. Mammy was always servant and nanny, plain and overweight to avoid being a threat to the marriage in the family where she slaved. Her smiling and bright face was supposed to reflect her happiness and satisfaction with being a family slave. There is this almost grotesque scene from the movie Imitation of Life, where the mammy is offered to work free and she anxiously begs: This is another example of how Blacks were portrayed as inferior and incapable of living without their owners, as well as a defence of slavery.
Happy slavery, what an oxymoron! Modern, humorous, deliberately stereotypical map of Europe. Australska je vlada prestala s praksom otimanja djece, ali se tek Jedan Talijan je ubio drugoga zbog Talijanke. And, of course, she is obese, which has become an extremely unwanted stereotype today. American cops are dumb, like probably everywhere, but here they are also donut addicts.
Mexicans are hot-blooded and short-tempered and good dancers. Contemporary Americans more precisely, white inhabitants of the USA are often considered uneducated rednecks being just one of derogatory meanings and gun-crazy: They consider themselves superior to other nations, not only on their continent, which is partly due to the politics that conveys this message, but also the education system.
This is why the USA are called the Global Cop although a more precise term would be Global Soldier, for the wars they wage all over the world. In the late summer ofI met an American journalist in Zagreb. I could not but mention that we had a war for four years. Grci su se zaljubili, a Grkinja rinta, kuha i posprema. Nemaju pojma je li se netko spetljao jer im je sve maglovito nakon prvih nekoliko litara. The Australian government eventually abandoned the child stealing practice, but an apology to Aborigines for what has been done since the beginning of the 20th century was made only in For the stolen generations, it was a weak and belated gesture, which remained just words spoken after too long a hesitation.
I will therefore close this chapter with a short story that is a good illustration and an amusing overview of ethnic stereotypes. Humour helps us to survive and often flourishes in hard times, like the ones we live in. This short story is an excellent example: One month since they went ashore, the situation was as follows: One Italian man killed the other over the Italian woman. Two Frenchmen and the French lady are living without stress in a menage-a-trois.
Two German men fixed a schedule to alternatively visit the German woman. The Greek men fell in love with each other while the Greek woman toils, cooks and cleans up. O toj tabli napisani su brojni radovi i knjige. Ispod svakog predstavnika nanizane su osobine od pozitivnih do negativnih. The Bulgarians looked at the vast ocean, then took a good look at the Bulgarian woman, and then jumped into the ocean and swam away.
The Japanese wrote a letter, put it in a bottle, threw the bottle into the ocean to travel to Tokyo and are now waiting for further instructions. Two Chinese men opened a restaurant, a textile shop, a pharmacy and a laundry. The Chinese woman got pregnant and they are expecting new workforce. Figure su poredane u sedamnaest kategorija: Talijanski je pjevan jezik valjda zbog opera? Francuski je elegantan, nobl, iako se i to mijenja zbog engleskog jezika koji je zbog informatizacije i globalizacije postao glavni svjetski jezik.
The Irish have divided their island into the Northern and the Southern part, set up a distillery and started producing coconut whiskey. They have no idea whether anybody was messing around with anybody else, because they see everything in blur after the first couple of litres. But they are incredibly happy to see how the English are doing bad. Stereotypes about European peoples Europe itself is also perceived through binary oppositions. In ancient Rome, barbarians were uneducated people and foreigners.
Before them, Indians of the Aryan race used the Sanskrit word barbara varvara to denote non-Aryan peoples, foreigners, but also fools. The fact that the Indo-European word survived unchanged to the present day as barbarin or varvarin is indicative of the longevity of the stereotype about others.
Popularnost jodlanja u SAD-u dosegla je vrhunac do ih. Po nekima je to delicija. Temperament se pripisuje svim Mediterancima. Siesta se kao zgodan i sporting a turban and extremely negative. Attributes are classified in seventeen categories: Curiously, the picture shows that, at that time, Spaniards were perceived as intelligent and wise, Frenchmen as cautious, Germans as witty and the English as morose.
The picture was apparently ordered and made by Catholics, possibly by Spaniards who thus received the best attributes, while nonCatholics Russians, Greek and Turks got the worst deal.
The Turks and the Greek were shown to dress like women, which can be certainly understood as an additional insult. Today, Germans are perceived as humourless and stereo typical beer drinkers, especially the Bavarians. The Irish, the Czech and the Belgians are also beer drinkers.
Beer is gaining popularity in Croatia as well. Beer comes with a beer belly, which should be according to the stereotype grown on all members of the beerloving nations, which is of course not the case. Not even all beer drinkers have it. As for Germans, it should be said that they are declared diligent and conscientious as an example of a positive stereotype, although many will consider the love for beer to be a positive or at least likeable stereotypebut often tediously pedantic.
The German language is in Croatia considered to be ugly, which could be the result and remnant of World War II, although Croatian speech in the Pannonian region is still, albeit decreasingly, pervaded with German loan words. The Italian is a melodious language is it because of the operas?
Zasigurno svugdje gdje ima turista, ima i stereotipa o njima. If we venture further to the German language area, to Austria, we can meet stereotypes about Austrians: Bernasconi, Gianenricostr. Stereo typical representatives of the EU through ironic depictions of their traits, in: Bernasconi, Gianenricop. On je sebi dao u zadatak da ispravi predrasude o Turcima i pri tome se bavio svim stanovnicima Balkana.
Jedan nesporazum to dobro opisuje: The American country singer Rilley Pucket had yodelling sections in its album, and Jimmie Rodgers later contributed to the popularisation of yodelling in the USA, which reached its peak in the s.
Souvenirs are typical culturological stereotypes and, in addition, kitsch by definition. The boundary between kitsch and stereotype is often a very fluid one, since kitsch is a form of simplification and generalisation and as such represents a major topic in its own right. The British are cold snobs and dandies both terms go hand in hand, not being synonyms, but having quite a lot in commonwith bad, horse teeth. Even though some consider it a delicacy. Its preparation takes one month and it is alleged to be edible for over one year.
Like most Roman peoples, the Italians are full of temperament and reputed lovers, and consider themselves as self-pleasing. Temperament is attributed to all Mediterranean peoples. The Spaniards have a reputation of being macho, while Spanish women are passionate.
They love partying and siestas31 and that is about everything they do. Siesta is a nice and pleasant habit that spread across regions of South America and among their inhabitants.
We also have something similar, called fjaka, but more about this later. The figure of toreador is also a stereotype and kitschy image of a Spaniard.
Glavni je predstavnik tog pokreta bio Johann Gottfried von Herder. Balkanci su velika zasebna tema: I saw this myself on Dugi otok.
Tourist stereotypes are many and often the brighter side of stereotypes. The sandals thing allegedly goes back to ancient Romans, who had to wear socks in northern regions because it was, of course, colder than in the south of Europe.
The British also wear socks with sandals when they are on vacation. Just like tourists, stereotypes about tourists are everywhere. Socks, especially white socks, are also a trademark of some Croatian people, but more about this a little bit later. The Balkans, the Balkanites and Balkanism The Balkans was, as the point of convergence of European and Oriental influences, often stereotyped by Europeans and later by Americans.
Tko su sve Balkanci? Following his self-assigned mission to correct the prejudices about Turks, he dealt with all inhabitants of the Balkans. Louis Leger is also among the numerous researchers of the Balkans who left behind valuable descriptions of the Slovenes, the Croats, the Serbs and the Bulgarians. An example of a gender stereotype which proves that stereotypes are often based on reality: To odsustvo tradicije moglo bi da objasni nizak intelektualni, a donekle i moralni nivo Levantinaca.
U njih nije ubrajao Makedonce, valjda ih je smatrao Bugarima. Njemu je bilo Count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy, Russian ambassador, considered the Turks a proud, mighty and ambitious nation, extremely disinclined to alcohol, cruel towards Christians, and very prone to bloody uprisings and fights against the government. The Americans perceived the people from the Balkans as a sort of Indian tribes. A misunderstanding that occurred describes it well: The Reis Effendi, clearly insulted, returned the message that the gifts were definitely overpaid.
The Americans understood this as an attempt to sponge for more gifts. Reis Effendi threatened to return all gifts, but fortunately everything ended well. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Balkans was frequented by travellers, scientists and writers, many of them looking for the ancient Greece and recording their impressions in their works of literature.
Karl May can be considered pioneer of fictional tourism. May is important because he inspired many authors to write novels and knight stories about the Balkans. The Romantic Movement initiated studies of the history, folklore, ethnography and languages of the Balkans. The influence of Johann Gottfried von Herder, a key representative of this movement, was visible in Eastern Europe. The Balkans was an attractive topic for travel writers, book authors, diplomats and chance travellers.
Besides stereotypes, stories were created about the Balkans, including the novel In den Schluchten des Balkans In the Gorges of the Balkans by the already mentioned Karl May, who never visited these