The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among social and academic achievement goals and the route to . may have, scholars have typically differentiated between two distinct forms of happiness . A majority of these students were enrolled in psychology classes and received. of the variation in achievement is the result of social class differences the Minister called this an In relation to educational achievement, the. *. A school's .. NCEA 1 Merit and Excellence, %, Scholarship 0. James Cook. Tecnologta Scholarship during the years of study in the U.S.A. This acknowledgment . the greatest degree of relationship with student achievement of the six school social classes have focused the attention of educators, decision-makers.
However, no study has yet directly addressed this issue to our knowledge. School-based parental involvement has many forms; however, previous studies have shown that Chinese parents rarely participate in school volunteer activities and school management activities.
A major form of school-based parental involvement is parent—school communication Wu et al. Therefore, this study used parent—school communication as the major indicator of school-based involvement. Previous research on the relationship between academic achievement and subjective well-being has primarily focused on adolescents Suldo et al.
In addition, previous studies have primarily focused on the cognitive component of well-being, i. Previous studies have shown that although these two factors are associated, they are not perfectly correlated Schimmack et al. Moreover, some studies have suggested that emotional well-being is more variable than life satisfaction and more susceptible to the influence of school experience Diener et al.
We investigated elementary school students in grades 4—6 in China to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and emotional well-being; furthermore, we controlling for gender and class level and explored whether parent—school communication moderates this relationship.
It was hypothesized that 1 academic achievement of elementary school students are positively correlated with positive affect and negatively correlated with negative affect and that 2 parent—school communication may moderate the relationship between academic achievement and the affect of children, academic achievement and affect may be just correlated when parents have a higher frequency of parent—school communication.
Sample and Procedure Two classes of students in grades 4, 5, and 6 in an elementary school in Liaocheng, Shandong, China, and one of their parents were randomly selected for investigation.
Liaocheng is located in western Shandong Province. The educational level of elementary schools was equivalent to the national average level; for example, the pupil-teacher ratio of Liaocheng in was Among valid student questionnaires, there were male students Among valid parent questionnaires, there were fathers One person did not report parent gender 0. The mean parental age was Students completed the questionnaires in class.
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Parental questions were taken home by children on the previous day and returned the following day to the principle investigator. A cover letter inviting parents to participate and explaining the items was taken home by students along with the questionnaire. Measures Academic Achievement Academic achievement across three subjects Chinese language, mathematics, and English languagedetermined by performance on the midterm and final examinations of the most recent semester was used.
Original scores ranged from 0 to Class level was used as a unit, and scores were transformed into standard achievement. Finally, standard achievement in the three subjects was averaged and used as the indicator of student academic achievement Cheung and Pomerantz, the averaged standard score ranged from Standard scores between the three subjects were moderately correlated: Therefore, composite scores of academic achievement were calculated Stright and Yeo, The model fit statistics for the parent—school communication questionnaire were all acceptable: Positive and Negative Affect The positive and negative affect scale compiled by Watson et al.
The scale included nine descriptive terms for each positive and negative affect experience such as happy and ashamed. Because the classification of occupational reputation in Chinese society is controversial Ren,it was difficult to effectively rank the occupational reputation of parents.
Therefore, we did not consider the influence of parent occupational reputation in the analyses. An analysis showed that family income did not significantly correlate with other variables positive affect: Data Analysis Two variables, parent—school communication and educational level attained by parents, were obtained from the parent questionnaires; however, 91 students completed a survey but did not return parent questionnaires.
Missing values were computed using full information maximum likelihood FIML.
Examining Relationships between Academic and Social Achievement Goals and Routes to Happiness
Prior to regression, the academic achievement of children and parental parent—school communication were centralized subtract the mean; Aiken and West, Results Table 1 presents the descriptive statistics and the correlations between variables.
Among the demographic variables, education level attained by parents was positively correlated with positive affect and negatively correlated with negative affect. Class level was negatively correlated with positive affect, and gender was negatively correlated with negative affect.
Descriptive statistics and correlations between variables. Finally, the interaction between academic achievement and parent—school communication was entered. Because different correlation strengths were observed between many of the predictive variables, a multiple collinearity diagnosis was performed on the predictive variables during the regression analysis.
Tolerance among all the predictive variables was higher than 0. Table 2 shows the hierarchical multiple regression results. In the second step, the education level attained by parents did not significantly predict the positive affect of children. The interaction between academic achievement and parent—school communication in the fourth step also reached significance. To understand the meaning of the interactive term, online resources provided by Preacher et al.
For parent—school communication, the mean values, the values one standard deviation above, and the values one standard deviation below were grouped.
In the third step, only academic achievement negatively predicted negative affect. In the fourth step, the relation between academic achievement and parent—school communication reached significance, indicating that parent—school communication moderated the effect of academic achievement on negative affect. Discussion This study explored the relationship between academic achievement and the emotional well-being measured as positive and negative affect of elementary school children and the moderating effect of parent—school communication in Chinese culture.
After demographic variables were controlled for, academic achievement still predicted the emotional well-being of children. Parent—school communication significantly moderated the relationship between academic achievement and positive and negative affect. Relationship between Academic Achievement and Emotional Well-Being Hierarchical multiple regression showed that class level negatively predicted the positive affect of children but did not predict negative affect.
This conclusion is consistent with Kuppens et al. In previous studies, gender differences in the subjective well-being of children have been controversial. Some studies did not find gender differences Seligson et al. Therefore, parents may exert more rigorous control on boys, leading to more negative affect.
More notably, this research found that academic achievements predicted positive and negative affect after controlling for demographic variables, indicating that higher academic achievement was associated with more positive affect and less negative affect in China.
The combination of more positive affect and less negative affect suggests that higher individual subjective well-being Bradburn, Combined with Chang et al. Suldo and Huebner showed that culture influenced the relationship between academic achievement and subjective well-being. The relationship between subjective well-being and academic achievement is present in cultures that emphasize academic achievement.
Under the influence of traditional Confucianism in China, academic achievement is particularly important. Several studies have also confirmed that Asian culture contains some unique values, including emphasizing the importance of hard work and respect for education.
These unique values emphasize the academic achievement of Asian students Sue and Okazaki, Therefore, in an Asian cultural background, regardless of cognitive or emotional levels, subjective well-being is unsurprisingly closely associated with academic achievement.
Self-determination theory suggests that the relationship between academic achievement and the subjective well-being of children may be caused by a variety of complex factors. Self-determination theory proposes three basic psychological demands: Fulfillment of these demands is important for both the psychological growth and subjective well-being of individuals Deci and Ryan, ; Ryan and Deci, Schoolwork is the most important activity of school-age children in China, which to some extent determines the satisfaction of competence and relatedness.
Previous studies have shown that the academic achievement of children is closely associated with the sense of both academic and social competence Anderman and Midgley, Next, academic achievement can also affect the quality of peer relationships Wentzel and Caldwell, as well as teacher-student relationships and parent—child relationships Zhang, The Moderating Effect of Parent—School Communication on the Relationship between Emotional Well-Being and Academic Achievement This study showed that parent—school communication moderates the relationship of both positive and negative affect with academic achievement.
In the high scoring and average groups, academic achievement was predictive of emotional well-being, whereas in the low scoring group, no association was observed. In the Chinese culture, there is little contact between parents and schools. Introduction Attempts to understand and achieve a state of happiness are not new. Over two-thousand years ago Aristotle theorized that happiness is the primary pursuit of mankind and that all other forms of attainment i.
Regarding malleability, researchers have noted successful interventions within a variety of contexts including but not limited to education [ 8 ], mental health [ 9 ], and increasing psychological resilience in the USA Army [ 10 ]. Regarding goals, research has consistently indicated that the nature of the goals we set in either academic or social contexts has the capacity to predict and explain a host of attitudes and behaviors that will likely impact our lives in some concrete and tangible way [ 16 — 18 ].
However, recent studies have begun to address the possibility that happiness can serve as an important predictor when trying to explain academic motivation, behaviors, and outcomes. More specifically, Lyubomirsky et al. The intent of the current study, in part, is to examine happiness in a manner consistent with Lyubomirsky et al.
For the current paper, happiness will be examined within two of Lyubomirsky et al. The following sections will describe each set of variables used in the present study and present relevant findings from past research. Routes of Happiness Instead of viewing happiness as a unitary construct and, as a consequence, simply examining the level of happiness one may have, scholars have typically differentiated between two distinct forms of happiness and labeled them hedonia and eudaimonia, respectively [ 15 ].
The key reason for making such a distinction is that depending on the underlying orientation which guides the choice to play piano, an individual will likely differ with respect to the quality and quantity of time, effort, and energy dedicated to that specific task [ 22 ]. However, a potentially limiting facet of hedonic enjoyment is that it is thought to be exclusively based on the successful resolution of a concrete and specific event, bound by time and place and therefore exemplified by an emotional surge which is likely to be short lived.
While eudaimonia and hedonic enjoyment may, in some cases, be positively related, they are thought to represent distinct constructs. For example, Waterman [ 15 ] has argued that pursuing eudaimonia is a sufficient but not necessary condition for experiencing hedonic pleasure; however, the reverse of that relationship does not seem to hold true due to the fact that experiencing hedonic pleasure is often temporary and not sufficient to bring about a sense of long-term fulfillment.
Further, Ryan et al. However, it should be noted that research findings do not imply that the pursuit of hedonic enjoyment is a categorically maladaptive orientation. Rather one should understand that it is perhaps the lone pursuit of hedonic enjoyment, either at the expense of others or in the absence of a pursuit of long-term fulfillment, which can render hedonic enjoyment less adaptive when compared to eudaimonic happiness.
Academic Achievement Goals The type s of achievement goals one pursues has been found to result in differing patterns of academic and social performance [ 121617 ]. In recent years, academic achievement goals have consistently been divided into three distinct categories each having a differential impact on academic performance [ 2425 ].
In other words, mastery-oriented students estimate whether they are successful in their academic pursuits based on behavioral or intellectual criteria that they have set for themselves without reference to the achievement level of classmates or expectations of parents or teachers. The second and third categories performance approach and performance avoidance goals, resp. For example, those who adopt performance approach goals are more likely to focus on outperforming others via higher grades, attaining a higher order of rank, or simply completing tasks first.
It should be noted that full comprehension or mastery of course material, while perhaps a byproduct, is not a focus of a student with a strong performance approach orientation. Finally, those who adopt performance avoidance goals are more likely to engage in active attempts to avoid being exposed as incapable or less capable of completing a task when compared to their classmates. The adoption of mastery goals has been found to be a strong predictor of students utilizing adaptive learning strategies, adopting a positive attitude toward learning and the willingness to select challenging tasks [ 12 ].
Research has also consistently linked the adoption of mastery goals to positive academic behaviors such as effort and persistence, willingness to seek help, and the use of meaningful cognitive processing strategies [ 26 — 28 ]. Conversely, performance avoidance and performance approach goals have been linked to maladaptive behaviors such as procrastination and the use of self-handicapping strategies [ 2930 ].
The question remains, however, as to the manner and extent to which academic achievement goals relate to and perhaps may be predicted by nonacademically focused constructs such as happiness.
As cognitive-motivational research has consistently demonstrated a link between goals and outcomes, we argue that understanding the factors that support or inhibit the adoption of the various forms of achievement goals is a relevant and meaningful endeavor. We would also submit that a continuing convergence between the educational and positive psychology lines of research see [ 22 ], e. Social Goals The second domain of life, consistent with Lyubomirsky et al.
Traditionally, the underlying reasons for fostering and maintaining social relationships have been examined under the rubric of social goals.