complete three questionnaires: The Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children. ( SEQ-C) in the areas of self-esteem, academic self-efficacy beliefs and perceived. A cross-sectional study of relationship between self-esteem and self-concept of and self-efficacy and the investigation of their relationship among students can bring Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and Rogers Self-concept Questionnaire. indicated that there is no relationship between self-esteem. MATERIAL AND . Science Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ): The SSEQ particular moment in.
It is assumed that procrastination is related to low self-esteem, either as a determinant or a consequence.
However, the negative correlation is assumed to be between self-esteem and procrastination SEF theory 12 holds that what we believe about ourselves strongly influences our task choice, level of effort and persistence, and how we subsequently perform.
Bandura argued that if adequate levels of ability and motivation exist, initial attempts to do and continue to work, will be affected by SEF. Weak poor efficacy may be involved in avoidance behavior but strong SEF may play a role in the onset and persistence of behavior SEF has been found to be one of the strongest factors predicting performance in various domains. In academic settings, SEF is a strong predictor of performance, with the strength of association dependent upon correspondence with the task in question, as well as level of specificity SEF has been studied in several previous procrastination studies, with results showing an inverse relationship with procrastination 215 - Another construct that is often connected witch procrastination, self-esteem, refers to judgments of global self-worth The relationship between procrastination and self-esteem has received considerable attention in the procrastination literature.
Procrastination has been described as a self-protective strategy that masks a fragile self-esteem, and numerous studies have found a significant inverse relationship between self-report procrastination and self-esteem 20 - Although the most recent procrastination studies explain procrastination through SEF or self-regulation models 2718considerable research has explored and continues to explore the link between procrastination and self-esteem Self-esteem and SEF appear to be very different constructs Questions of SEF are related to one's ability to perform certain tasks or actions, the outcomes of which may or may not have any bearing on self-esteem.
Research findings demonstrate that self-esteem predicts neither the choice of personal goals, nor performance accomplishments Therefore, it can be inferred that SEF predicts self-esteem rather than self-esteem predicts SEFparticularly in predicting trait procrastination. Individuals with low SEF may be more likely to delay in decision making.
One critical issue centers on the presumed orthogonal nature of SEF and self-esteem. Then this relation between variables might result from their shared variability or error variance. However, we argue that this issue remains unresolved. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the quality of procrastination with SEF and self-esteem. This study would answer two basic questions by comparison two models of mediation: Self regulatory efficacy means self-efficacy for self-regulated learning Caprara et al.
Thijs and Verkuyten found that academic achievement is negatively affected by peer victimization; victimized students tend to have low academic self-efficacy and in turn perform low academically.
They also found that studies on cross-sectional data show that victimized children receive lower grades than their more accepted classmates because they considered themselves to be less competent. They also found emotional well-being as an important factor in academic achievement. Furthermore, they found that stereotype threat: Marsh, conducted a study to investigate the multicollinearity in the relationship between self-efficacy, self-concept, and achievement.
They found that multicollinearity seriously threatens valid interpretations; it can produce misleading or uninterpretable results when a set of highly independent variables is used to predict a dependent variable Marsh et al. To further elucidate this effect they used two models in their study, the first model Model 1 showed that self-efficacy alone better predict mathematics achievement. The second model Model 2 however, due to the elimination of multicollinearity effects, showed that both self-efficacy and self-concept mathematics self-concept do not differ in their contribution to the prediction of mathematics achievement.
The Social Cognitive theory explains human functioning in terms of a model of triadic reciprocality Bandura, in which behaviour, cognitive and other personal factors, and environmental events all operate as interacting determinants of each other.
Among the suggested capabilities is the self-reflective capability. According to Bandura the self-reflective capability enables people to analyze their experiences and to think about their thought processes. People without positive self-efficacy beliefs are expected to be unable to behave optimally even when they fully know what to do.
The Social Cognitive Theory defines self-esteem in terms of how people evaluate themselves Coopersmith, as referred by Bandura, People who show a sense of unworthiness are said to have low self-esteem, whereas those who show self-pride are said to hold themselves in high esteem Bandura, People who meet their standards feel pleased with themselves, and those who fail to measure up to their standards are displeased with themselves.
This is perhaps the relationship of self-efficacy and self-esteem.
Self-esteem is however, much dependent on previous performances and social factors. Bandura noted that both self-esteem and self-efficacy beliefs are self-referent thoughts which both contribute to the quality of life of an individual.
The Social Cognitive Theory is relevant to this study because it deals directly with concepts that are being investigated in this study.
The theory maintains that most human behaviour is self-regulated through cumulative direct and vicarious experience. Bandura argue that in social, intellectual, and physical pursuits those who judge themselves highly efficacious expect favourable outcomes whereas self-doubters expect mediocre performances hence negative outcomes. Students with high self-efficacy perceive academic demand to be more of a challenge than a threat;they have greater academic expectations, and better academic performance than those with low self-efficacy Chemers et al.
Students with higher expectations for academic success show higher performance than those with lower academic expectations Chemers at al. These studies show that Social Cognitive Theory is quite relevant and applicable to answer the main research question and hypothesis of this study. It is expected in this study for students with high self-efficacy beliefs and self-esteem Page 13 Progressive Academic Publishing, UK www. Social Cognitive Theory has been used widely and applied in various contexts including: A few criticize the theory of not being systematic or unified.
Nevertheless the abundant studies which support it especially in academic contexts make it a relevant theory for the present study. The target group was the University of Botswana students. The questionnaire was distributed to students in three classes; two of which were second year Psychology and Social work classes while one was a fourth year Psychology class.
Both Psychology classes had students from different Faculties of the University. All the questionnaires were returned but ten were not retained for data analysis because they had missing answers. Convenient sampling method was used in choosing the sample. Though it has some limitations in ensuring a representative sample, it is very cost effective and convenient because it takes a very short time to identify respondents Cozby, Participation in the study was voluntary and the responses were treated with utmost confidentiality.
A questionnaire was designed containing the following variables: Self-esteem was operationalised using the Rosenberg Global Self-Esteem Scale which has ten items measured on a three point scale Rosenberg, The sum of the scores for the ten items yield a self-esteem score where the higher the score the higher the self-esteem for an individual and vice versa Rosenberg, Self-efficacy was operationalized through items 11 to 20 in the questionnaire see appendix adapted from the General Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Jerusalem and Schwarzer The General Self-Efficacy Scale has ten items all with pre-given answer categories e.
Not at all true, hardly true, moderately true, and exactly true. The General Self-Efficacy Scale has internal reliabilities ranging from. A slight majority of 46 Most respondents 50; Interestingly, a majority of 53 On academic contentment, the majority of respondents 65, A good number of respondents 48, Interestingly, a majority of respondents 47, Females were more likely to report a GPA 3.
There were no significant relationships between self-efficacy and age group, up-bringing, and academic performance GPA. No significant relationships were found between academic performance GPA and self-esteem, Faculty enrolment, self- efficacy and academic performance contentment.
These findings do not support the hypothesis of the study which posits that students with high self-efficacy and self-esteem are more likely to have a high GPA academic performance.
This finding is contrary to Lane et al. Respondents also indicated that they believed in their capability to pass and get good grades despite their actual inability to really get good grades. Contrary to most research findings Chemers et al. Lane and Lane found no significant relationship between self-esteem and academic performance, but, strong relationship was found between self-efficacy and self-esteem.
These results show that self-efficacy is not significantly related to academic performance and are inconsistent with the findings of Lane and Lane The main hypothesis of this study is therefore not supported by the findings because neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem was significantly associated with academic performance.
For students to actually get good grades they should be motivated and optimistic to get good grades while they also engage in pro-academic actions. In line with these results Van Etten et al. Bandura found that in social, intellectual, and physical pursuits those who judge themselves highly efficacious expect favourable outcomes whereas self-doubters expect mediocre performances hence negative outcomes. This is consistent with previous studies Caprara et al.Self-Efficacy
This could probably explain why students do not get very good results despite their indication that they could get good grades if they wanted to. Because students already accept their academic performance they are less Page 17 Progressive Academic Publishing, UK www. However, the results are somewhat contrary to Marsh et al. The level of contentment students have in their previous academic performance positively affects their self-efficacy beliefs but, the extent of this effect is not established as it was not part of this study.
Literature support the relationship between academic performance and self- efficacy beliefsbut only previous performance academic contentment was associated with self-efficacy beliefs. The findings are not consistent with the Social Cognitive Theory because both self-esteem and self-efficacy beliefs were associated with academic performance.
The Social Cognitive Theory does not account for the negative relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem. It does not also explain the insignificant correlation between self-efficacy and self-esteem beliefs. The validation and use of the scales used in this study is eminent in Botswana because respondents had problems with understanding some of the items in the scales. Botswana validated scales measuring self-efficacy and self-esteem and academic context may have resulted in findings consistent with the Social Cognitive Theory.
Most respondents felt that some of the items in the scales were not grammatically understandable as a result they either chose the same answers for all items or skipped items they could not understand.
Ten questions were not included for data analysis because some items on the scales had missing answers especially items 8, 11, 18, and 20 see appendix.
Role of self-efficacy and self-esteem in academic performance | Gopolang Maropamabi - angelfirenm.info
Due to limited funding and time, a representative sample was not selected especially that students from other Faculties as demonstrated by Instead of using general scales, specific and simple scales should be used to measure academic self-efficacy and self-esteem. Qualitative and longitudinal approaches should be used to further investigate the relationship and influence of self- efficacy and self-esteem beliefs in academic performance and achievement as argued for by Van Etten et al.
The indication by a majority From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behaviour. From cognition to behaviour pp. Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning.
Educational Psychologist, 28, — Social foundations of thoughts and action: