Plant Production (Agriculture, eAGRI)
Animal and plant diseases pose a serious and continuing threat to food security, food Secondly, we explore the inter-relationship between disease and the political, . Likewise, with regard to crop production, many consumers express .. In the context of infectious disease, this means challenging the artificial barriers that. Subsistence farming, who farms a small area with limited resource inputs, and Other agricultural production goods include timber, fertilizers, animal hides, leather, Other recent changes in agriculture include hydroponics, plant breeding, Note: The above text is excerpted from the Wikipedia article " Agriculture", which. Plant commodities are understood to be field and special crops cultivated for and are used to feed farm animals and for technical and pharmaceutical use.
The role of sheep and goat husbandry in marginal areas should not be confined to milk production. The potential of these animals as efficient meat producers needed also to be considered, but caution should be exercised to develop goat husbandry only on suitable areas. As one of the means of relieving animal protein shortages, Member Governments should recognize the possibilities offered by the introduction of efficient modern techniques of poultry and pig production.
The Conference stressed the need for the Development of regional facilities for research and training in this field. It considered that, under certain circumstances where supplies of feedstuffs could be assured, poultry numbers could be significantly increased. The Conference felt that further action was necessary to make better use of surplus sheep and goat milk, much of which at present is wasted. It noted that the Organization had established a panel of experts to study the utilization of sheep and goat milk.
The Conference expressed the view that the Development of a dairy industry and the planning of future milk plants should depend to a great extent on the results of economic studies.
The Conference stressed the need for pilot dairy schemes in countries intending to develop a dairy industry. Expressing satisfaction at the close collaboration which had existed with UNICEF, WFP and various bilateral aid programs, the Conference recommended even closer collaboration with bilateral aid programs in the future, especially in connection with various dairy training programs in the regions.
Payment for quality milk was important as this was the best incentive to good husbandry.
For successful dairy production, the farmer must be assured of regular collection and sale of his product. Where collection was over long distances or under bad transport conditions, consideration should be given to chilling facilities. The Conference considered that the use of imported dried skim milk in developing countries should be so planned as to avoid impeding the Development of a national dairy industry.
It agreed, however, that the use of this milk product could be initially advantageous in augmenting local milk supplies. While expressing satisfaction at the progress made in the control of rinderpest, the Conference urged that constant vigilance be exercised in areas which were now free from the disease. It noted that there had been outbreaks of rinderpest in the past biennium in countries which had been free of it for several years. Considering the progress which had been made in rinderpest control, the Director-General should explore the possibilities of producing a document to record the achievements.
The Conference urged that attention be given in certain countries to contagious bovine and caprine pleuropneumonia. It hoped that investigations which were being pursued would result in the production of cheaper and more effective vaccines suitable for widespread application where this disease is enzootic.
More work should also be devoted to the problem of bovine cysticercosis, especially in Africa. The Conference recommended that increased attention be given to tsetse fly control in Africa Satisfactory economic control would enable livestock farming to be practiced on vast areas which are at present unfavorable because of the fly and the associated risk of trypanosomiasis.
The prevention of the entry and spread of exotic diseases is vitally important.
There was clear need to rationalize and harmonize sanitary regulations relating to the international movement of animals and animal products. FAO should, in close co-operation with the International Office of Epizootics OIEstimulate international action as a means towards encouraging safe trading in livestock and livestock products. The effectiveness of buffer zones as a means of controlling the spread of animal disease should be recognized, although the Conference felt that the cost of establishment and maintenance might be a limiting factor.
It recommended that surveys by FAO to establish their value should be carried out with the least possible delay. In view of the role of wildlife in the spread of diseases, the Organization should extend investigations into the significance of wild animals as reservoirs of human and animal pathogens, in conjunction with studies on the relationship of wildlife to domestic animal production. It should also make widely known how pure water supplies could obviate spreading disease.
Plant/Animal Relationships - Brooklyn Botanic Garden
Because early diagnosis was the key to the control and eradication of animal disease, the Conference felt that FAO should assist member countries to the fullest extent possible in establishing adequate diagnostic services. The Conference recommended that the control of major diseases should be approached on a regional basis wherever practicable. The Conference noted the very considerable field programs developed in this field.
In view of the importance of field programs in this sector and of the reciprocal influence of activities under the Regular and field programs, the Conference at this stage of FAO's organization recommended that the Organization pursue its present successful policy in regard to them, entailing: Such pilot projects, while constituting the first stage of productive investment, could also play a basic role in demonstration and training.
The Conference urged taking into account the recommendations of the first session of the Regional Commission for Land and Water Use in the Near East when planning and carrying out the program of work of the Organization in that region. It recommended that the second session of this Regional Commission should be organized during the course of the coming biennium if finances permitted.
The Conference gave recognition to the value of soil surveys which provided essential information for a variety of Development projects.
It stressed that soil surveys and their interpretation go hand in hand. It recognized the importance of proper treatment of soils in order to develop their potential, and in this connection agreed that due attention should be paid to soil physics. The Conference, while emphasizing the importance of fertilizers to improve agriculture in the developing countries, considered that full benefit would often not be obtained without improved cropping practices.
The introduction of fertilizers was a first step in the improvement of agricultural production. It is, and will probably continue to be, the major source of human food and a significant contributor of other useful commodities. The actual number of species exploited for cultivation or rearing is minute in comparison to the multitude present throughout the world.
Animal production | FAO | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Agriculture attempts to channel as much incoming solar radiation as possible into usable commodities through selection of appropriate varieties and provision of suitable environments. Plant or crop production provides the basis for any subsequent consumption by livestock or humans.
In theory, humans in the position of primary consumers should produce the greatest efficiency, but the relationship is complex and not always rational. Most crops are grown primarily because some part of the plant can be consumed directly by people.
Under many conditions, however, much of the plant material cannot be used because it is indigestible by humans.
Ruminants cattle, sheep, goats, buffaloesother herbivorous animals horses, camels and some omnivores pigs, ducks, geese possess specially modified digestive systems that can extract substantial amounts of nutrients from plant material that is not suited for human food.
- Plant/Animal Relationships
- Animal husbandry
- Animal production
These species have the digestive ability to satisfy much of their requirements for both maintenance and some production through grazing on marginal land and consumption of the considerable residues or by-products left over after extraction of plant components that can be used directly in human diets.
However, faster growth or higher yields can be obtained whenever herbivores or omnivores receive "better quality" feeds such as cereal grains that might be suited for direct consumption by humans. Critics of intensive livestock production allege that when consuming grains, domesticated animals compete directly with humans and are responsible for considerable malnutrition in lesser developed countries.
Such simplistic arguments are naive since almost all intensively managed animal units operate in affluent, industrialized countries where cereal grains grow in surplus rather than deficit amounts. Around the same time, the wild ass was being tamed in Egypt.
Camels were domesticated soon after this,  with the Bactrian camel in Mongolia and the Arabian camel becoming beasts of burden. Honey bees were domesticated from at least the Old Kingdom, providing both honey and wax. In addition, rabbits were domesticated for food by the first century BC. To help flush them out from their underground burrows, the polecat was domesticated as the ferretits use described by Pliny the Elder.
Some aspects such as the herding of animals continued throughout the period. By the 11th century, the economy had recovered and the countryside was again productive. Woodland for [feeding] 70 pigs. Improvements to the plough allowed the soil to be tilled to a greater depth.