Augustus - Wikipedia
The Second Triumvirate was a political association of convenience between Mark Antony & Octavian each believed he was the rightful heir to lead Senate grant him the political authority he needed, that is, a consulship. It reveals the astuteness of Julius Caesar's intellect that he chose Octavian to be his successor In the battle with Anthony's forces the two elected Consuls of Rome were killed. Antonius goes to Italy to resolve his relationship with Octavian. The exact relationship between Antony and Caesar is in part lost to extent at least back in the good books by Caesar's death, what with him being his co- consul. His treatment of Caesar's heir Octavian after his arrival in Rome, that being.
His deliberate rivalry with Antony for the eventual mastership of the Roman world became increasingly apparent. With the help of Agrippa, he also lavished large sums on the adornment of Rome. In 32 bce the triumvirate had officially ended, and Octavian, unlike Antony, professed no longer to be employing its powers. Each leader induced the populations under his control to swear formal oaths of allegiance to his own cause. Then, in spite of grave discontent aroused by his exactions in Italy, Octavian declared war—not against Antony but against Cleopatra.
At the Battle of ActiumAntony tried to extricate his ships in the hope of continuing the fight elsewhere. Though Cleopatra and then Antony succeeded in getting away, only a quarter of their fleet was able to follow them.
Cleopatra and Antony fled to Egypt and committed suicide when Octavian captured the country in the following year. National Maritime Museum, London.
From this point on, by a long and gradual series of tentative, patient measures, he established the Roman principate, a system of government that enabled him to maintain, in all essentials, absolute control. Gradually reducing his 60 legions to 28, he retained approximatelylegionaries, mostly Italian, and supplemented them by about the same number of auxiliaries drawn from the provinces. A permanent bodyguard the Praetoriansbased on the bodyguards maintained by earlier generals, was stationed partly in Rome and partly in other Italian towns.
A superb network of roads was created to maintain internal order and facilitate trade, and an efficient fleet was organized to police the Mediterranean. In 28 bce Octavian and Agrippa held a census of the civil populationthe first of three during the reign. They also reduced the Senate from about 1, to later compliant members, and Octavian was appointed its president.
Government and administration Remembering, however, that Caesar had been assassinated because of his resort to naked power, Octavian realized that the governing class would welcome him as the terminator of civil war only if he concealed his autocracy beneath provisions avowedly harking back to republican traditions.
At the same time, he was granted a year tenure of an area of government provincia comprising SpainGauland Syriathe three regions containing the bulk of the army. The remaining provinces were to be governed by proconsuls appointed by the Senate in the old republican fashion.
The word augustus was often contrasted with humanus; its adoption as the title representing the new order cleverly indicated, in an extraconstitutional fashion, his superiority over the rest of mankind. With the aid of writers such as VirgilLivyand Horaceall of whom in their different ways shared the same ideas, he showed his patriotic veneration of the old Italian faith by reviving many of its ceremonials and repairing numerous temples.
Military operations continued in many frontier areas. In 25 bce recalcitrant Alpine tribes were reduced, and Galatia central Asia Minor was annexed. Mauretaniaon the other hand, was transferred from Roman provincial status to that of a client kingdom, for such dependent monarchiesas in the later republic, bore a considerable part of the burden of imperial defense.
Mark Antony - Wikipedia
Augustus himself visited Gaul and directed part of a campaign in Spain until his health gave out; in 23 bce he fell ill again and seemed on the point of death. Feeling, amid reports of conspiraciesthat new constitutional steps were necessary, he proceeded to terminate his series of consulships in favour of a power imperium majus that was separated altogether from office and its practical inconveniences.
He was also awarded the power of a tribune tribunicia potestas for life. Earlier he had accepted certain privileges of a tribune. The full power he now assumed carried with it practical advantages, notably the right to convene the Senate. This was, perhaps, needed all the more because Augustus himself—while admittedly supporting the interests of poorer people by a great extension of the right of judicial appeal—tended to back the established classes as the keystone of his system.
Meanwhile Augustus himself traveled in SicilyGreeceand Asia 22— In 19 bce Agrippa completed the subjugation of Spain. In 17 there were resplendent celebrations of ancient ritual, known as the Secular Gamesto purify the Roman people of their past sins and provide full religious inauguration of the new age. Although the principate was not an office which could be automatically handed on, Augustus seemed to be indicating his views regarding his ultimate successor when he adopted the two sons of his daughter Julia, boys aged three and one, who were henceforward known as Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar.
Proceeding across the Alpsthey annexed Noricum and Raetiacomprising large parts of what are now SwitzerlandAustriaand Bavariaand extended the imperial frontier from Italy to the upper Danube 16—15 bce.
It was probably during these years that an executive, or drafting, committee consilium of the Senate was established in order to help Augustus to prepare senatorial business. His administrative burden was also lightened by the expansion of his own staff knights, who could also now rise to a number of key posts, and freedmen to form the beginnings of a civil servicewhich had never existed before but was destined to become an essential feature of the imperial system.
Gradually, too, a completely reformed administrative structure of RomeItalyand the whole empire was evolved. Octavian was admitted to the Senate and given the equivalent rank to a pro-praetor Suetonius Augustus 10; Dio Cassius Meanwhile, envoys were sent to Antony, who negotiated to give up Cisalpine Gaul, but sought to hold Comata Gaul for a five-year period until Cassius and Brutus had been consuls and then given up whatever proconsular commands they might have taken thus Antony could ensure his own safety.
Once again, a military leader was seeking to buttress himself against military and legal attacks by retaining an extra-ordinary command in a province.
This time it was not Cato or Pompey who refused to negotiate, it was Cicero and Octavian who now felt they had the upper hand. Furthermore, the Senate soon recognized the military usurpations of M. Cicero also tried to frighten Lepidus away from his support for Antony Symep Cicero would soon find that the continued victories of Octavian followed later on by the death of the two current consuls would leave the young man in a strong if not yet dominant position within the state.
Indeed, it was probably this alliance between Cicero and Octavian, who had sworn to avenge the death of Julius Caesar, that prevented M.
Brutus returning from Macedonia to Italy, even though he had been requested to return by the Senate and Cicero himself Symep Brutus was reluctant to engage in a civil war against Mark Antony or Lepidus at this stage. Brutus, in fact, felt that Octavian was more of a danger to the Republic than Antony. He also argued that Cicero was not using the young leader; instead Cicero was merely finding himself a convenient master Symep Antony was defeated in a number of engagements, but his forces were not entirely destroyed.
He withdrew towards Transalpine Gaul. Lepidus, perhaps fearing that his troops would not obey an order to destroy Antony, soon surrendered the command of his forces to the more popular leader, thereby giving Antony the support of his Spanish legions.
However, things did not go well for D.
Betrayed by his own troops, D. Brutus fled north into the Alps, only to be killed by a Gallic chieftain Symep At this stage Octavian revealed his hand, perhaps prompted by feelers that the Senate was putting out for the return of M.
Brutus from the east Plutarch Brutus A deputation of four hundred soldiers and centurions marched into the Senate and demanded that their general be given the consulship even though he was under age and had not held the required earlier posts, though he had been granted previously the powers of a propraetor. The demand was refused and Octavian again marched on Rome, thus time with several legions Suetonius Augustus With his legions just outside the city, it was not surprising that Octavian was appointed consul.
Octavian immediately began to entrench his power. A special court declared Cassius and M. Brutus public enemies, now allowing war to be waged freely against men who held commands only recently confirmed by the Senate. He left Rome for the north, but now aimed at some accommodation with Antony. Octavian of course, could not come to terms with Brutus and Cassius an option which would clash with the pietas he owed his adoptive fatherbut he knew that his forces alone would not be sufficient to overwhelm their legions.
Apparently Lepidus was the main mediator Huzar p The New Triumvirate This second triumvirate, unlike the first private arrangement between Crassus, Julius Caesar and Pompey, was the public control of the Roman state for five years. It was based on the pretext of a board to set the Republic in order, tresviri rei publicae constituendae, and was thereafter approved by a law passed in the Senate Symep; Huzarp To Octavian fell Africa, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, weak and problematic commands, thereby suggesting his initial junior position in the trio.
Sextius Pompeius in fact had already occupied parts of these islands with his naval forces. The legions were to be divided among them, though Antony may have had the strategic advantage in Italy see Huzarp With this new unity of purpose, the triumvirs decided to remove their enemies as well as add to their own wealth.
They set up a list of proscriptions those to be executed. Numbers in the ancient sources vary from Plutarch Brutus 27 up to senators Appian Civil War 4. The triumvirs were keen to remove serious opposition, silence their opponents, settle some old scores, and meanwhile enrich themselves by confiscating the estates of proscribed individuals. Other capital taxes were levied Symep to maintain their unusually large legionary forces 43 legions in total.
This was needed because Cassius and Brutus had cut off the revenues usually derived from Greece and the East. One of their first victims was Cicero, whose Philippics had made him too dangerous a man for Antony to tolerate. His end was dignified, if lacking the grandeur of true tragedy. Cicero had tried to be a power-broker among men he either disliked or underestimated see Ferguson Many fled east to Cassius and Brutus, other voted honours to the new triumvirs.
Syme sees this as the true end of the Republic: The Republic had been abolished. Whatever the outcome of the struggle, it could never be restored. Despotism ruled, supported by violence and confiscation. The best men were dead and proscribed. The Senate was packed with ruffians, the consulate, once the reward of civic virtue, now became the recompense of craft or crime.
This may be an exaggeration, but it was clear that no mere manipulation of military leaders was enough to ensure the constitutional and political operation of the Republic. The Senate was easily divided and cowed, the courts became the arena of political jousts, and the assemblies and tribunes readily sidelined by the preparation for civil war see for example Suetonius Julius Caesar Furthermore, this was an age of ambition which readily lead to violence: All had seen some men rise spectacularly high and others fall to ruin or death.
Most men had neither the inclination nor favourable opportunity to advance their career through intimidation or open violence, but no one could ever be sure that his rivals would not choose such methods.
Senators were ready to believe rumours of revolution or assassination plots. Once civil war actually broke out even remaining neutral was not always a safe option as the proscriptions have shown. The higher a man rose and the greater risks he took, the harder his fall was likely to be, and the more he worried that his enemies would turn savagely on any sign of weakness. The overweaning ambition of so many of the famous figures in the Late Republic is obvious, but it is too easy to forget the nervous climate in which they lived and struggled for power.
Goldsworthyp 5. Brutus was shamed by the death of Cicero but not surprised. He was particularly critical of the actions of the Senate of the friends of Cicero in buckling under to the triumvirate. As expressed in Plutarch: He [Brutus] said it was not their oppressors but their own actions that had made slaves of them, and they had allowed themselves to look on tamely at deeds which they should have considered it intolerable even to hear of Plutarch Brutus 28 The Caesarians were delayed in their revenge against the Liberators.
Octavian became enmeshed in a slow and difficult campaign against Sex. Pompeius in Sicily, but then returned to Italy and cr0ssed over to Dyrrhachium in Albania. Statius Marcus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who soon had some warships at their disposal Pellingp5.
Meanwhile, Cassius and Brutus had strengthened their forces militarily and financially, and in 42 B. They advanced until the plain of Philippi, establishing well-defended positions for their camps. Antony and Octavian soon closed on their location and managed to force an encounter even though Cassius had hoped to use delay and guile to wear down his opponents in a long campaign Plutarch Brutus To date, these were the two largest armies that had ever faced each other in battle Plutarch Brutus The triumvirs had transported a total of 28 legions into Macedonia, while the Liberators had some 19 legions, not all up to full strength Warrypp After initial marches the armies faced each other at Philippi in north-east Greece.
Octavian only just managed to vacate his tent in time to avoid being killed. Cassius, meanwhile, had been forced back by Antony, and had to abandon his camp. Despairing, and mistaking the relief force for enemy soldiers, Cassius took his own life Plutarch Brutustoo soon, too easily. Plutarch records that he killed himself with the same dagger he had used on Julius Caesar Plutarch Caesar However, the result of this first battle 23rd October 42 B.
E was indecisive, with Brutus still on the field with large forces. In this action Marcus, the son of Cato the Younger, died fighting, refusing to surrender or flee Plutarch Brutus Brutus retreated off the field with some friends, and after careful deliberation decided to take his own life, certain that he could not longer win and unwilling to continue the bloodshed.
Brutus thought he had no hope of victory and committed suicide Plutarch Caesar For later commentators this was a fated outcome: Caesar's rapid advance surprised Pompey, who, along with the other chief members of the Optimates, fled Italy for Greece. After entering Rome, instead of pursuing Pompey, Caesar marched to Spain to defeat Pompeian-loyalists there. Meanwhile, Antony, with the rank of Propraetor despite never having served as Praetorwas installed as governor of Italy and commander of the army, stationed there while Marcus Lepidusone of Caesar's staff officers, ran the provisional administration of Rome itself.
In early 48 BC, he prepared to sail with seven legions to Greece to face Pompey. Pompey's forces, however, defeated them and assumed control of the Adriatic Sea along with it.
Additionally, the two legions they commanded defected to Pompey. Without their fleet, Caesar lacked the necessary transport ships to cross into Greece with his seven legions. Instead, he sailed with only two and placed Antony in command of the remaining five at Brundisium with instructions to join him as soon as he was able. Antony, however, managed to trick Libo into pursuing some decoy ships, causing Libo's squadron to be trapped and attacked.
Most of Libo's fleet managed to escape, but several of his troops were trapped and captured. The Battle of Pharsalus: Antony commanded the left wing of Caesar's army.
During the Greek campaign, Plutarch records Antony was Caesar's top general and second to only him in reputation. With food sources running low, Caesar, in July, ordered a nocturnal assault on Pompey's camp, but Pompey's larger forces pushed back the assault. Though an indecisive result, the victory was a tactical win for Pompey.
Pompey, however, did not order a counter-assault on Caesar's camp, allowing Caesar to retreat unhindered. Caesar would later remark the civil war would have ended that day if Pompey had only attacked him.
Assuming a defensive position at the plain of PharsalusCaesar's army prepared for pitched battle with Pompey's, which outnumbered his own two to one. Though the civil war had not ended at Pharsulus, the battle marked the pinnacle of Caesar's power and effectively ended the Republic. After Pompey's defeat, most of the Senate defected to Caesar, including many of the soldiers who had fought under Pompey. The young Cleopatra became Caesar's mistress and bore him a son, Caesarion.
Caesar's actions further strengthened Roman control over the already Roman-dominated kingdom. The chief cause of his political challenges concerned debt forgiveness. One of the Tribunes for 47 BC, Publius Cornelius Dolabellaa former general under Pompey, proposed a law which would have canceled all outstanding debts.
Antony opposed the law for political and personal reasons: When Dolabella sought to enact the law by force and seized the Roman ForumAntony responded by unleashing his soldiers upon the assembled mass. Antony's violent reaction had caused Rome to fall into a state of anarchy. Caesar sought to mend relations with the populist leader; he was elected to a third term as Consul for 46 BC, but proposed the Senate should transfer the consulship to Dolabella. When Antony protested, Caesar was forced to withdraw the motion out of shame.
Later, Caesar sought to exercise his prerogatives as Dictator and directly proclaim Dolabella as Consul instead. After returning victorious from North Africa, Caesar was appointed Dictator for ten years and brought Cleopatra and their son to Rome. Antony again remained in Rome while Caesar, in 45 BC, sailed to Spain to defeat the final opposition to his rule.Gaius Octavian Caesar Augustus Tribute I Rome
When Caesar returned in late 45 BC, the civil war was over. During this time Antony married his third wife, Fulvia. Following the scandal with Dolabella, Antony had divorced his second wife and quickly married Fulvia.
Assassination of Julius Caesar Ides of March[ edit ] Whatever conflicts existed between himself and Caesar, Antony remained faithful to Caesar, ensuring their estrangement did not last long. Caesar planned a new invasion of Parthia and desired to leave Antony in Italy to govern Rome in his name.
The reconciliation came soon after Antony rejected an offer by Gaius Treboniusone of Caesar's generals, to join a conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. The festival was held in honor of Lupathe she-wolf who suckled the infant orphans Romulus and Remusthe founders of Rome.
Caesar had enacted a number of constitutional reforms which centralized effectively all political powers within his own hands. He was granted further honors, including a form of semi-official cultwith Antony as his high priest. Caesar's political rivals feared these reforms were his attempts at transforming the Republic into an open monarchy. During the festival's activities, Antony publicly offered Caesar a diademwhich Caesar refused.
The event presented a powerful message: By refusing it, Caesar demonstrated he had no intention of making himself King of Rome. Antony's motive for such actions is not clear and it is unknown if he acted with Caesar's prior approval or on his own. A group of Senators resolved to kill Caesar to prevent him from seizing the throne. Although Cassius was "the moving spirit" in the plot, winning over the chief assassins to the cause of tyrannicideBrutus, with his family's history of deposing Rome's kings, became their leader.