Introduction to Morphology and lexicology Unit 1: What is lexicology? - ppt video online download
Lexicology studies this relationship in terms of the grammatical meanings as . For grammatical information he has to depend on the morphological analysis of. Morphology is one of the fields of linguistics which studies the internal but words as units in the lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology. What is the exact difference between them?? (the meaning given with a word). LEXICOLOGY DEFINED LEXICOLOGY AS A LEVEL OF LINGUISTIC further on the basis of meaning - have a relationship with the non-linguistic world.
Lexicological studies can be, further, of comparative and contrastive type wherein the lexical systems of two languages are studies from a contrastive point of view. Lexicology fulfills the needs of different branches of applied linguistics, viz.
LEXICOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS
As the vocabulary or the lexical system of a language forms a system of the language as other systems, its study in lexicology should not be separated from the other constituents of the system. So lexicology is closely related to phonetics and grammar.
The relation between phonetics and lexicology is very important. Words consist of phonemes, which, although not having meaning of their own, serve in formation of morphemes, the level where meaning is expressed.
So they serve to distinguish between meanings. Moreover, meaning itself is indispensable for phonemic analysis. Historical phonetics helps in the study of polysemy, homonymy and synonymy. The link between lexicology and grammar is also very close. Each word has a relation in the grammatical system of a language and belongs to some parts of speech. Lexicology studies this relationship in terms of the grammatical meanings as also their relationship with the lexical meaning.
In the field of word formation, lexicology is still more closely related to grammar. Both study the patterns of word formation. Language is a social phenomenon. The study of language cannot be divorced from the study of the social system and the development in society. The development and progress in the social, political and technological system is manifest in the vocabulary of a language. New words are introduced and old words die out. New meanings are added to words and old meanings are dropped out.
Lexicology studies the vocabulary of a language from the sociological points also. Lexicography also studies the lexicon as lexicology does but "whereas lexicology concentrates more on general properties and features that can be viewed as systematic, lexicography typically has the so to say individuality of each lexical unit in the focus of its interest".
Lexicography has been generally defined as the writing or compiling1 of a lexicon or dictionary, the art or practice of writing dictionaries or the science of methods of compiling dictionaries. The word was used as early as In lexicology the word is studied as a part of the system. In lexicography it is studied as an individual unit in respect of its meaning and use from the practical point of its use by the reader of the dictionary for learning the language or comprehending texts in it or for any other purpose like checking correct spelling, pronunciation etc.
A word may have different and varied characteristic, all of which may not be needed by a lexicographer. His work is guided more by the purpose of the dictionary and the type of the audience.
He presents the words of the lexical system in a way so as to make it more practically useable in real life situation i. For example lexicology may give the theoretical basis for enumerating different meanings of a polysemous word, but how these meanings are worded and presented in the dictionary is governed by the practical problems of utility of the dictionary for different types of readers.
The aim of lexicology is to study the vocabulary of a language as a system, so the treatment of individual units may not claim to be complete because the number of units is very larger. Its goal is systematization in the study as a whole but not completeness as regards individual units.
So it cannot claim to be a perfectly systematic treatment. Here, every entry is treated as an independent problem. Lexicologists present their material in sequence according to their view of the study of vocabulary. The lexicographers are mostly guided by the principle of convenience in retrieval of the data and arrange words usually in alphabetical order.
Lexicology provides the theoretical basis of lexicography. The lexicographer although knowing all the semantic details of a lexical unit might, at times, have to take such decisions and include such features in the definition which might be his own observations. In lexicology the study of words is objective, governed by the theories of semantics and word formation.
There is no scope for individual aberrations. In lexicography, in spite of all the best attempts on the part of the lexicographer, many a definition become subjective, i. General lexicology deals with the universal features of the words of languages. In this sense lexicology is not language specific, whereas lexicography is more or less language specific in spite of its universal theoretical background. Its theories have no other validation except for practical applicability in the compilation of a dictionary.
Whereas lexicology is more theory oriented, lexicography is more concerned with concrete application i. So "in a certain sense lexicography may be considered a superior discipline to lexicology, for results are more important than intentions and the value of theoretical principles must be estimated according to results".
Lexicography is the science and art of compiling dictionary. The word 'dictionary' was first used as Dictionarius in this sense in the 13th century by an English man John Garland. The word Dictionarium was used in the 14th century. For a medieval scholar a dictionary was a collection of diction or phrases put together for the use of pupils studying Latin.
One of the purposes of dictionary in medieval times was glossing texts and employing synonyms for them. Dictionaries are prepared to serve different practical needs of the people. A reader looks at the dictionary mainly from the following points of view: This is the legislative or the court house function of the dictionary2.
Johnson described the lexicographer as "a writer of dictionaries. Little did he realize at that time that his dictionary would, for almost a century, serve as the 'Bible' of the English language, the second function noted above.
Besides these a dictionary also serves as a clearing house of information. In order that these functions be performed adequately, the information in the dictionaries should be collected from as many sources as possible, and should be authentic and easily retrievable.
Lexicography in this way is an applied science. Lexicography is not only related to linguistics but is an applied discipline under it. The practical problems of lexicography are solved by the application of the researches of linguistic works.
- Introduction to Morphology and lexicology Unit 1: What is lexicology?
- Part I: Introduction
As we shall see below, in his entire work from the selection of entries, fixation of head words, the definition of words to the arrangement of meanings and entries, the lexicographer is helped by the work of different branches of linguistics. Special lexicology studies words and word-combinations, and describes the vocabulary and vocabulary units of a particular language.
It is a part of general lexicology. Contrastive lexicology studies the relations between etymologically related words and word-combinations in different languages. It deals with the contrastive analysis of the lexicon, lexico-semantic relationships, thesauri of entire vocabularies, classification of lexical hierarchies, and taxonomic structure of specialized terminology.
Descriptive lexicology studies the lexicon and lexico-semantic relationships of a certain language at a given stage of its development. Comparatists and neogrammarians of the nineteenth century believed that linguistic science is just the study of the evolution and comparison of languages. Ferdinand de Saussure opposed this view, stating that scientific methods are applicable to the descriptive and the historical study of language, and since then, two main approaches have been applied to the study of language material: Synchronic or static or descriptive studies deal with the make-up of the language, its words, combinations, and lexico-semantic relationships at a given moment of time, while diachronic or evaluative, or historical studies deal with the transformations the lexicon undergoes in the course of time.
There is also a close link between lexicology and Stylistics. Stylistics is concerned with the study of stylistic devices, on the one hand, and functional styles, on the other. Stylistics studies meaning, synonymy, antonymy, etc.
The word is the basic unit of language. The principle characteristics of the word are as follows: By the external structure of the word we mean its sound form, morphemic composition, and derivational structure.
The internal or semantic structure of the word is all its meanings together. Its external unity means that a word possesses a single grammatical framing, e. The first component black can't have any grammatical forms of its own, whereas in a word-group each constituent can have its own grammatical forms, e.
In a word-group, other constituents can be inserted between its components, e. Its component morphemes are permanently linked together, unlike word-groups, whose components possess a certain amount of structural freedom.
Morphology and Lexicology ??? [Arşiv] - dilFORUM
Semantic internal unity means that each meaningful word conveys one concept, e. The word greenhouse conveys only one concept "a building of glass for rearing delicate plants".
In speech, a certain variant of a word is used in every speech act, but all its variants are identified by language users as making up one and the same word.