Elizabeth Cady Stanton - HISTORY
The women's rights movement was the offspring of abolition. the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society in , an organization, noted for. The history of feminism in the United States is very directly linked to the class to the upper middle class saw a correlation between the oppression of slaves and Men made up most of the leadership in abolitionist organizations, and their. The relationship between the two movements was born of necessity because the groups both suffered from oppression. The women rights groups knew how to.
Between andthe NAWSA intensified its lobbying efforts and additional states extended the franchise to women: Washington, California, Arizona, Kansas, and Oregon. In Illinois, future Congresswoman Ruth Hanna McCormick of Illinois helped lead the fight for suffrage as a lobbyist in Springfield when the state legislature granted women the right to vote in This marked the first such victory for women in a state east of the Mississippi River.
A year later Montana granted women the right to vote, thanks in part to the efforts of another future Congresswoman, Jeannette Rankin. Despite the new momentum, however, some reformers were impatient with the pace of change.
Embracing a more confrontational style, Paul drew a younger generation of women to her movement, helped resuscitate the push for a federal equal rights amendment, and relentlessly attacked the Democratic administration of President Woodrow Wilson for obstructing the extension of the vote to women. Beginning inPresident Wilson a convert to the suffrage cause urged Congress to pass a voting rights amendment.
The Women’s Rights Movement, 1848–1920
Elected two years after her state enfranchised women, Rankin became the first woman to serve in the national legislature. Unveiled inthe monument is featured prominently in the Rotunda of the U. Moreover, they insisted, the failure to extend the vote to women might impede their participation in the war effort just when they were most needed to play a greater role as workers and volunteers outside the home.
Responding to these overtures, the House of Representatives initially passed a voting rights amendment on January 10,but the Senate did not follow suit before the end of the 65th Congress. It was not until after the war, however, that the measure finally cleared Congress with the House again voting its approval by a wide margin on May 21,and the Senate concurring on June 4, A year later, on August 18,Tennessee became the 36th state to approve the 19th Amendment.
Official ratification occurred on August 26,when U. Religious revivals during the Second Great Awakening intensified anti-slavery activity after Seeking to perfect society, adherents targeted slavery as an evil that destroyed individual free will as moral beings.
Abolitionists began to demand immediate, uncompensated emancipation of slaves.
Women were a large part of the general membership and formed separate, local female anti-slavery branches. Mott also helped found the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society inan organization, noted for its promotion of racial and gender equality, that included African American and white women as leaders and members.
Many anti-slavery reformers, like the Quakers, came from pacifist backgrounds or espoused nonviolent social reform. They shaped public opinion by distributing newspapers and tracts, sending out organizers and lecturers, and hosting fundraising fairs.
Garrison, who saw the U. Constitution and federal government as pro-slavery forces, observed Independence Day as a day of mourning.
Between andthe American Anti-Slavery Society split in three, in part over the issue of women's leadership, specifically Abby Kelley's appointment to the business committee.
Radical abolitionists and women's rights supporters, known as "Garrisonian" abolitionists, remained in the American Anti-Slavery Society. The newly formed American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society restricted membership to males, with auxiliaries for females.
The politically minded formed the Liberty Party, limiting women's participation to fundraising. The discrimination of women in abolition and other reform movements led them to advocate for women's rights.
All time will not be long enough to pay the debt of gratitude we owe these noble men…who roused us to a sense of our own rights, to the dignity of our high calling. Claiming that "all Men and Women are created equal," the signers called for extending to women the right to vote, control property, sign legal documents, serve on juries, and enjoy equal access to education and the professions.
Arguments for women's rights came from experiences in the anti-slavery movement.
During a petition drive in Massachusetts inmale listeners thronged to female-only lectures. Rebuked by Congregational ministers and others for speaking to promiscuous audiences, they held their ground. They learned to write persuasively, raise funds, organize supporters and events, and speak to large groups of men and women about important political and social issues.
In the service of anti-slavery, women found their voices. Between andwomen's rights advocates held state and national conventions and campaigned for legal changes. Free Soilers sought to limit slavery by denying it to new territories entering the union. Some male village residents attended both conventions. Chamberlain and Saron Phillips, who signed the Declaration of Sentiments, were chosen as delegates to the Free Soil Party's national convention.
Antislavery Connection - Women's Rights National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)
By the early s, Theodore D. In Decemberthe Tappans, Garrison, and sixty other delegates of both races and genders met in Philadelphia to found the American Anti-Slavery Society, which denounced slavery as a sin that must be abolished immediately, endorsed nonviolence, and condemned racial prejudice. Bythe society had received substantial moral and financial support from African-American communities in the North and had established hundreds of branches throughout the free states, flooding the North with antislavery literature, agents, and petitions demanding that Congress end all federal support for slavery.
All these activities provoked widespread hostile responses from North and South, most notably violent mobs, the burning of mailbags containing abolitionist literature, and the passage in the U.
These developments, and especially the murder of abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, led many northerners, fearful for their own civil liberties, to vote for antislavery politicians and brought important converts such as Wendell PhillipsGerrit Smith, and Edmund Quincy to the cause.
Internal Rifts Develop But as antislavery sentiment began to appear in politics, abolitionists also began disagreeing among themselves. Disputes over these matters split the American Anti-Slavery Society inleaving Garrison and his supporters in command of that body; his opponents, led by the Tappans, founded the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society.Women's Suffrage: Crash Course US History #31
Meanwhile, still other foes of Garrison launched the Liberty party with James G.