State the relationship between cell shape and cell function? | Yahoo Answers
They are so small that they must be viewed with a microscope. There are Plant cells are generally a square shape while animal cells are usually circular. In a eukaryote cell, a membrane-bound organelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a describe the relationship between a cell's shape and its function . It is an explanation of the relationship between cells and living things. parts of the plant cell, it gives plant cells a more uniform and regular shape and provides .
Plant cells are generally a square shape while animal cells are usually circular. Plant cells and animal cells have evolved different organelles to perform specific functions. Plant cells have chloroplasts, a cell wall and a central vacuole. Animal cells lack these three organelles.
Plant cells have chloroplasts because they make their own food. Plant cells have a cell wall so that they do not burst when the central vacuole fills up with water. Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, and lack membrane bound organelles. They are the oldest cells on earth.
Prokaryotes often move using special structures such as flagella or cilia. Cells have many structures inside of them called organelles. These organelles are like the organs in a human and they help the cell stay alive. Eukaryotes also have a golgi apparatus that packages and distributes proteins.
Mitochondria are the power house of the cell and provide the cell with energy. This lumen is actually continuous with the perinuclear space, so we know the endoplasmic reticulum is attached to the nuclear envelope. There are actually two different endoplasmic reticuli in a cell: The rough endoplasmic reticulum is the site of protein production where we make our major product - the toy while the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is where lipids fats are made accessories for the toy, but not the central product of the factory.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum The rough endoplasmic reticulum is so-called because its surface is studded with ribosomes, the molecules in charge of protein production. When a ribosome finds a specific RNA segment, that segment may tell the ribosome to travel to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and embed itself.
The protein created from this segment will find itself inside the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where it folds and is tagged with a usually carbohydrate molecule in a process known as glycosylation that marks the protein for transport to the Golgi apparatus. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the nuclear envelope, and looks like a series of canals near the nucleus.
Proteins made in the rough endoplasmic reticulum as destined to either be a part of a membrane, or to be secreted from the cell membrane out of the cell. Without an rough endoplasmic reticulum, it would be a lot harder to distinguish between proteins that should leave the cell, and proteins that should remain. Thus, the rough endoplasmic reticulum helps cells specialize and allows for greater complexity in the organism.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum The smooth endoplasmic reticulum makes lipids and steroids, instead of being involved in protein synthesis. These are fat-based molecules that are important in energy storage, membrane structure, and communication steroids can act as hormones. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is also responsible for detoxifying the cell. It is more tubular than the rough endoplasmic reticulum, and is not necessarily continuous with the nuclear envelope.
Every cell has a smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but the amount will vary with cell function.
How a Cell's Shape Affects Its Function | Sciencing
A diagram showing the structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus, and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum 3 is continuous with the nucleus 1 and makes proteins to be processed by the Golgi apparatus 8which it is not continuous with. The smoother endoplasmic reticulum is more tubular than the rough, and is not studded with ribosomes.
Golgi apparatus aka Golgi body aka Golgi We mentioned the Golgi apparatus earlier when we discussed the production of proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
State the relationship between cell shape and cell function...?
If the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula are how we make our product, the Golgi is the mailroom that sends our product to customers. It is responsible for packing proteins from the rough endoplasmic reticulum into membrane-bound vesicles tiny compartments of lipid bilayer that store molecules which then translocate to the cell membrane. At the cell membrane, the vesicles can fuse with the larger lipid bilayer, causing the vesicle contents to either become part of the cell membrane or be released to the outside.
Different molecules actually have different fates upon entering the Golgi. This determination is done by tagging the proteins with special sugar molecules that act as a shipping label for the protein. The shipping department identifies the molecule and sets it on one of 4 paths: Once the vesicle is made, it moves to the cell membrane and fuses with it. Molecules in this pathway are often protein channels which allow molecules into or out of the cell, or cell identifiers which project into the extracellular space and act like a name tag for the cell.
Before these vesicles can fuse with the cell membrane, they must accumulate in number, and require a special chemical signal to be released. The final destination for proteins coming through the Golgi is the lysosome.
Cartoon representing the golgi apparatus sorting proteins into one of the four paths described above: These organelles are spheres full of enzymes ready to hydrolyze chop up the chemical bonds of whatever substance crosses the membrane, so the cell can reuse the raw material.
Lysosomal proteins only being active in an acidic environment acts as safety mechanism for the rest of the cell - if the lysosome were to somehow leak or burst, the degradative enzymes would inactivate before they chopped up proteins the cell still needed.
Cartoon showing a lysosome breaking down a protein. Peroxisome Like the lysosome, the peroxisome is a spherical organelle responsible for destroying its contents. Unlike the lysosome, which mostly degrades proteins, the peroxisome is the site of fatty acid breakdown. It also protects the cell from reactive oxygen species ROS molecules which could seriously damage the cell.
ROSs are molecules like oxygen ions or peroxides that are created as a byproduct of normal cellular metabolism, but also by radiation, tobacco, and drugs.
Cellular organelles and structure
They cause what is known as oxidative stress in the cell by reacting with and damaging DNA and lipid-based molecules like cell membranes. These ROSs are the reason we need antioxidants in our diet. ATP adenosine triphosphate is the energy currency of the cell, and is produced in a process known as cellular respiration.
Though the process begins in the cytoplasm, the bulk of the energy produced comes from later steps that take place in the mitochondria.
Cellular organelles and structure (article) | Khan Academy
Like we saw with the nuclear envelope, there are actually two lipid bilayers that separate the mitochondrial contents from the cytoplasm.
We refer to them as the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes. If we cross both membranes we end up in the matrix, where pyruvate is sent after it is created from the breakdown of glucose this is step 1 of cellular respiration, known as glycolysis. Energy to make ATP comes from protons moving back into the matrix down their gradient from the intermembrane space.
A cartoon showing the various parts of the mitochondria. Mitochondria are also somewhat unique in that they are self-replicating and have their own DNA, almost as if they were a completely separate cell. The prevailing theory, known as the endosymbiotic theory, is that eukaryotes were first formed by large prokaryotic cells engulfing smaller cells that looked a lot like mitochondria and chloroplasts, more on them later.
Instead of being digested, the engulfed cells remained intact and the arrangement turned out to be advantageous to both cells, which created a symbiotic relationship. Cytoskeleton Within the cytoplasm there is network of protein fibers known as the cytoskeleton. This structure is responsible for both cell movement and stability.
The major components of the cytoskeleton are microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments. Microtubules Microtubules are small tubes made from the protein tubulin.