Power, Authority & Legitimacy Theory - Politics Revision
relationships is central to the understanding of difference between power and authority. thinkers had missed out a huge area of influence discussed. Check out all the trending Latest news news in Nigeria & world right now on Legit .ng. Power can be used to influence the behaviour of people. The legitimate power is the formal authority delegated to the holder of a. Nigeria QUESTION The relationship between the Concepts of Power, While discussing the Concepts of Power, Authority and Legitimacy Generally, in politics and social science, power is the ability to influence the behaviour of people.
Power Power is a very important concept in politics and political analysis. Indeed, some regard it as the central core of politics.
According to Allan Ball, It political power is a key concept in the study of politics, for it politics is the resolution of conflict, the distribution of power within a political community, determines how the conflict is to be resolved and whether the resolution is to be effectively observed by all parties.
Power construed in this sense, is open and naked and has no basis or real acceptability to those over whom it is exercised. Carl Frederick sees power as the capacity of an individual or group of individuals to modify the conduct of others in the manner which he desires. From the above description, it is clear that political power is a social power. It is exercised over man not over nature or things. The greater the sanction, or the more numerous the sanctions, the greater will be the political power.
The sanctions may be negative or positive. Power is bilateral as well as relational. Also, other variants of power aside political power are economic power, military power, social power and physical power. All these have their peculiarities within the context of their existence in the society. Influence There is often little practical difference between power and influence.
Power and influence are alike in that each has both rational and relational basis. They differ in the respect of the way they are being exercised. The exercise of power depends upon potential sanctions, while the exercise of influence does not.
It is also pertinent to note that influence may be implicit or explicit. The efficacy of these variants however varies from individual to individual, group unto group. Authority For the exercise of power to be really acceptable, it has to be authorized or legitimized.
In the final breakdown, it is important for all people in positions of power that they should have their position recognized as legitimate rightful by those over whom they have power.
Authority is the right to direct and command others to obedience without dissent, and it is associated with respect and influence as well as ability to secure voluntary compliance with decisions. Allan Ball has also defined political authority as the recognition of the right to rule irrespective of the sanctions the ruler may possess.
Max Weber — a German sociologist gave a trichotomous classification of the sources of political authority: This takes the form of respect for the monarch or chief. Charismatic authority is exercised because of the belief in the personal qualities or gifts of grace of a particular person. As for legal-rational authority, this type of authority is legitimated by the supremacy of the law.
The laws subscribed are seen as constitutional and in line with the political culture of the people. These sources of authority are not necessarily exclusive.
Wikipedia the Encyclopaedia quoted several scholars with different definitions of the concept. Thus; The word authority is derived from the Latin word auctoritas, meaning invention, advice, opinion, influence, or command.
In English, the word authority can be used to mean power given by the state in the form of Members of Parliament, judges, police officers, etc. The word Authority with capital A refers to the governing body upon which such authority with lower case a is vested; for example, the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority or the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.
Max Weber, in his sociological and philosophical work, identified and distinguished three types of legitimate domination Herrschaft in German, which generally means 'domination' or 'rule'that have sometimes been rendered in English translation as types of authority, because domination isn't seen as a political concept in the first place.
Weber defined domination authority as the chance of commands being obeyed by a specifiable group of people. Here, in giving the layman understanding of what legitimacy means, we can say that legitimacy is ruling the people base on their approval.
If legitimacy is interpreted descriptively, it refers to people's beliefs about political authority and, sometimes, political obligations. In his sociology, Max Weber put forward a very influential account of legitimacy that excludes any recourse to normative criteria Mommsen In contrast to Weber's descriptive concept, the normative concept of political legitimacy refers to some benchmark of acceptability or justification of political power or authority and—possibly—obligation.
On the broadest view, legitimacy both explains why the use of political power by a particular body—a state, a government, or a democratic collective, for example—is permissible and why there is a pro tanto moral duty to obey its commands.
On this view, if the conditions for legitimacy are not met, political institutions exercise power unjustifiably and the commands they might produce do then not entail any obligation to obey. John Rawls, in Political Liberalismpresents such an interpretation of legitimacy.
Power, Authourity and Legitimacy; the similarities and Disperities | Isa ISMAIL - angelfirenm.info
John Locke put forward such an interpretation of legitimacy. Locke's starting- point is a state of nature in which all individuals are equally free in the sense that they possess equal political authority. However, their meanings differ: For example, while a mob has the power to punish a criminal, for example by lynching, people who believe in the rule of law consider that only a court of law has the authority to punish a criminal. Sociologists examine government and politics in terms of their impact on individuals and larger social systems.
What is the difference between power and authority in politics
Max Weber studied power and authority, differentiating between the two concepts and formulating a system for classifying types of authority. Legitimacy is a socially constructed and psychologically accepted right to exercise power.
A person can have legitimacy but no actual power the legitimate king might reside in exile, destitute and forgotten.
A person can have actual power but not legitimacy the usurper who exiled the king and appropriates the symbols of office. The role of Power becomes most effective when Power does not remain a source of coercion. In-fact after getting legitimized it becomes Authority. Means the stability of Authority depends upon legitimacy. Can authority exist without power? Weberian sense of traditional and charismatic forms all exert influence without the need to persuade. Legal-rational based on office and power invested in the office thus need power.
Different views of authority Liberals — authority instrumental, coming from below through the consent of the governed — social contract. Do not want too much state involvement therefore authority is limited, rational and purposeful leading to preference for legal-rational. Conservatives — comes from above from those with experience and wisdom. Benefits other but there are few limits leading to authoritarianism through charismatic.
Essential for maintenance of order.
Marxists — authority manufactured to mask rule by the bourgeoisie. Expectation to give unquestioning obedience is wrong as it threatens reason — Mill — intellectual diversity. Legitimacy To be in a position to exercise authority.
Links to power and authority by transforming the former into the latter — turns naked power into authority. Moral right to rule — Locke and consent — social contrast theory — we consent to be governed. If there is a formal constitutional basis, we can see legitimacy. Hobbes — social contract — dictatorship could have legitimacy as it is meant to protect the individual — the Leviathan state — legitimacy comes about by preventing people getting harmed — implied consent.
For Rousseau the state is legitimate if it upholds the general will. Likes of Weber see a belief in legitimacy as important no matter how it is achieved. How do governments gain and maintain legitimacy?
Locke challenged Hobbes as he believed a man could not give away more power over himself than he himself has. Popular compliance — populace have a belief in the right to rule which in a democracy is based around the exercise of legal-rational authority.
Constitutionalism — Beetham — legitimacy operating under existing established principles thus power exercised through the existing constitutional process if this adheres to the widely held beliefs and values of a society. Leaves the matter largely in the hands of the powerful, who may be able to manufacture rightfulness by public relation campaigns. Power is legitimate if it fulfils 3 criteria: Power exercised according to certain rules.