empower ethnic minority consumers of psychological .. Culturally competent therapists know the biases likely willingness to play role of “overseer,” or. In sociology, an ethnic enclave is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, They only reach this point after first supplying for the needs of co -ethnics and then expanding to meet needs of those in such as Tsang and Inkpen, argue restricts an individual's willingness to explore opportunities outside the network. it's hard to know how to broach a subject related to gender, race, or ethnicity. Use these .. modeling transparency, a willingness to accept potential criticisms.
Informal activities are constantly under risk of detection by the formal sector, which has a negative effect on job security. Furthermore, due to the absence of legal framework, immigrant laborers often remain silent about various forms of exploitation. The most common form of labor exploitation in immigrant economies is unpaid labor. Undocumented immigrants are especially afraid to report violations of labor laws and exploitation.
Aside from immigration control policies, some governments also impose measures to accelerate social and political incorporation of new immigrants, and to stimulate economic mobility.
Wayne Cornelius studies two central theses regarding institutional response to increased movement of people across transnational borders. The first of these is the gap hypothesis which describes the dissonance between official immigration policies and real policy outcomes. Policy gaps are the result of unintended consequences and inadequate enforcement by the receiving society.
Many reasons can explain unintended consequences of immigration policy. Governments with undefined or ambiguous stances toward immigration may propagate unintended consequences, and the reliance on flawed policies can further reduce the efficacy of institutional measures. Furthermore, political incoherency policy poses a greater challenge for the incorporation and enforcement of effective measures.
A negative public opinion toward immigrants is a good measure of significant policy gaps in the receiving government; however, special interest groups may also constrain political responses to immigration. This is especially true in liberal democracies, where "lobbying by powerful employer groups, religious groups, ethnic and immigrant advocacy groups, and even labor unions leads governments to adopt more expansionary immigration policies, even when the economy goes bad and general public opinion turns hostile to immigrants.
Thus, the policymaking process is complicated by involvement of multiple factions. The second thesis studied by Wayne Cornelius is the convergence hypothesis which describes the growing similarity of political responses to immigration among immigrant-receiving countries. These similarities fall into: In general, European immigrants tend to encounter little resistance by host countries, while tenets of racism are evinced by widespread resistance to immigrants of color.
By studying the diverging trajectories of immigrant citizenship in Canada and the U. Bloemraad describes political incorporation as a "social process of mobilization by friends, family, community organizations and local leaders that is embedded in an institutional context shaped by government policies of diversity and newcomer settlement. Bloemraad shows that friends, family, co-ethnic organizations and local community affect political incorporation by providing a structured mobilization framework.
This social structure is most essential for immigrants who face language barriers and may lack familiarity with host institutions. The extent to which migrant networks promote citizenship depends on the efficacy of government policies on immigrant integration. Governments adopting policies that facilitate the emergence, integration and growth of ethnic economies are presumed to gain support by co-ethnics. Thus, the movement toward political incorporation and citizenship is nested in a larger institutional structure involving economic and social integration policy as these relate to immigrants.
By providing a space that facilitates upward mobility and economic integration into the receiving society, enclaves and their members fundamentally influence the perceptions of receiving institutions by co-ethnics. Finally, enclaves may gauge community interest in naturalization and direct immigrants through the process to gaining citizenship Ethnic enclave debate[ edit ] The discourse surrounding ethnic enclaves has prompted debate among scholars in two related areas of thought. Both areas discuss the role ethnic enclaves play by either offering aid or hindering the economic and social well-being of the enclave's members.
One area of thought discusses the role of enclaves in assimilative patterns and upward mobility while the second area of thought argues the economic ramifications associated with membership within ethnic enclaves. The immediate economic and social advantages associated with membership in an ethnic enclave are undisputed by scholars, however the long-term consequences remain an area of uncertainty. The role these networks play remains uncertain due to the fact that ethnic enclaves allow immigrants to function successfully within the host society without a significant amount of adjustment either culturally or linguistically.
As such, they can either help or hinder naturalization within the host country. The relatively low levels of skill required allow immigrants to achieve financial stability which can in turn encourage eventual naturalization and assimilation. Adversely, this same factor can afford enclave members the opportunity to remain considerably segregated and secluded from the host society. As such, members may circumvent the need to acquire skills necessary for life in the larger host society such as knowledge of cultural norms and language.
The hypothesis as written by Wilson and Portes formulates the idea that "[i]mmigrant workers are not restricted to the secondary labor market. Enclave workers will share with those in the primary sector a significant economic return past human capital investments" something those who enter the secondary labor market are not able to enjoy.
In their argument formulated to disprove the enclave economy hypothesis, Sanders and Nee state the need for a distinction between "immigrant-bosses" and "immigrant-workers" as the economic benefits differ along this distinction. Sanders and Nee also assert the idea that segregation and forced entrance of immigrant-workers into low paying jobs is actually aggravated by the existence of ethnic enclaves.
In reaction to Sanders and Nee, Portes and Jensen make the clarification that those in ethnic enclaves need not be wealthier than those who left the enclave for the hypothesis to be supported.
They instead assert that this will usually not be the case as the constant entrance of new immigrants into the enclave will actually be somewhat burdensome on the economy; a factor which does not actually represent disadvantage when compared with the other advantages provided. The first of these conditions requires the demonstration that ethnic entrepreneurship is a mobility trap leading to lower earnings than the immigrant's worth in human capital.
The second condition requires data proving the work within the enclave to be exploitative, and the third condition requires data showing employment within the enclave leads to a 'dead end' and offers no chance of upward mobility. Jennifer Lee adds to the discussion noting the particular niches and types of business immigrant groups enter.
She notes that it is most common for immigrants to participate in long hours of physically demanding work in the retail industry. The retail market is a viable option due to the relatively low startup costs and knowledge of the host country's language required. Different niches have different levels of communication, for example the retail and self-service niche, fruit and vegetable markets, take out restaurants typically require the lowest level of customer interaction and communication.
Lee notes the embeddedness of ethnic enclaves and brings the thought that such practices are good for those within the enclave but harmful to certain groups outside them. She argues that this type of retail niche domination can have positive consequences for co-ethnics, as Portes and Wilson believe, however can also have negative effects on surrounding ethnic groups who face exclusion due solely to their ethnic dissimilarity from the network.
Immigration to the United States Immigration to the United States has occurred in waves that demonstrate the predominance of certain sets of ethnic minorities. As immigrants tended to cluster in certain cities and states, separate waves were responsible for the establishment of ethnic enclaves in separate physical spaces.
Ethnicity and ethnic groups – an explanation of these terms | Equality and Intercultural
Effects on society[ edit ] The increased supply of less-skilled immigrants raises concerns for the economic opportunities of the least-skilled natives. As the supply of low-wage workers increases, the wages for native workers who seek similar employment decrease.
While native employees lose from lower wages, employers benefit from lower costs, which can lead to a decrease in the cost of the good for native consumers, with cheaper goods and services. That can cause increase of the gain to native-owned firms. On the other hand, ethnic enclaves expand the size of the market, encouraging cross-cultural interactions and introducing Americans to a variety of foreign products and cuisines.
Macias a examined levels of perceived environmental risks among nine U. Moreover, among non-Whites, concern for climate change was greater than concern for more localized issues, such as air pollution from cars and industry.
Other studies report significant differences among different racial and ethnic minority groups on environmental priorities. Despite these higher perceptions of environmental risks among minorities, there is some evidence of an inverse concern gap between U.
Whites and non-Whites in response to questions that require participants to prioritize economic versus environmental concerns. An analysis of GSS data found that Blacks and foreign-born Latinos expressed greater support for prioritizing economic progress over environmental protection than do Whites, and that Blacks indicated less willingness to accept a lower standard of living to protect the environment than Whites Macias, b.
Whites, controlling for a wide range of other demographic variables, including education, income, urban versus rural residence, and political ideology liberalism versus conservatism. Theoretical Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Differences Issues of equity are critical to understanding differences in climate change risk perceptions and environmental engagement between Whites and non-Whites.
Early studies looked to explain disparities in pro-environmental attitudes on the basis of differing concerns about the environment, documenting ostensibly lower levels of concern among non-Whites relative to Whites. Spurred largely by work within the field of environmental justice, a notable shift from assessing environmental concern based primarily on attitudes toward conservation e.
Differences in risk perceptions observed across racial and ethnic groups mirror a reality that minority communities in many industrialized nations suffer disproportionately from a wide range of environmental hazards compared to equivalent-income Whites.
Due to persistent racial segregation and discrimination in real estate and insurance markets, housing, and infrastructure development, U. For instance, California, one of the most racially and ethnically diverse U.
Consistent with environmental deprivation theory, differential exposure to the effects of climate change thus may help to explain why non-Whites show higher levels of environmental concern and support for risk-mitigating policies compared to Whites.
Additional survey findings lend further support to the vulnerability hypothesis. Similarly, a nationally representative survey of U. For instance, a comparison of U. Greater vulnerability to environmental risks may also heighten concerns about climate change by strengthening pro-ecological values more generally.
Kellstedt, Zahran, and Vedlitz found that climate risk perceptions were greater among non-Whites relative to Whites. Consistent with the identity-protective hypothesis, individuals from high-status groups, as well as those who are more likely to perceive prevailing group hierarchies as just and fair e.
Ethnicity and ethnic groups – an explanation of these terms
Ethnicity, Acculturation, and Climate Change Beliefs Beyond effects of race, emerging research on the role of acculturation processes and well-documented effects of cultural values on pro-environmental behavior suggests a unique role of ethnic identity in climate change engagement.
For instance, Asians and Latinos, the fastest-growing minority groups within the United States, consistently show among the highest levels of environmental concern of all U. Macias b examined whether risk perception among U. Although higher risk perceptions were generally observed among non-Whites relative to Whites, evidence for environmental attitude assimilation was observed among those of Mexican origin.
First-generation Mexican immigrants were over three times as likely as U. These effects were weaker, although still significant, for U. Overall, these findings complement prior research documenting a pattern of ecological assimilation whereby U. Nevertheless, some studies beyond the U. These remain important questions for future research. Indeed, our analysis of empirical studies published since that included one or more racial or ethnic group comparisons as opposed to single-population or case studies revealed a dearth of non-U.
Given their differential vulnerability and awareness of general inequities Satterfield et al. Consistent with this reasoning, in a large, nationally representative survey, Schuldt and Pearson found that U.
Most strikingly, political ideology, a variable that strongly predicts climate polarization in the United States, was substantially less predictive of the climate beliefs of non-Whites than of Whites. This same pattern held for other opinion metrics examined, including belief in scientific consensus and support for mitigation efforts regulating greenhouse gases. Whites generally show stronger partisan effects relative to non-Whites—and this finding suggests that differential polarization has increased over time for similar effects for income, discussed in more detail later in this article, see Figures 3a and 3b.
Weighted percentage of U. Question wording referenced the greenhouse effect in and climate change in Click to view larger Figure 3. Income categories correspond to the bottom and top quintiles see Bohr, For instance, despite being the fastest-growing minority group in the United States, few studies have examined climate-related attitudes and beliefs of Asians and Asian Americans.