List of city nicknames in the United States - Wikipedia
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Wartime damage to levees and cities along the Mississippi River adversely affected southern crops and trade. The federal government contributed to restoring infrastructure. The nationwide financial recession and Panic of adversely affected businesses and slowed economic recovery. Fromelections in Louisiana were marked by violence, as white insurgents tried to suppress black voting and disrupt Republican Party gatherings. The disputed gubernatorial election resulted in conflicts that ran for years.
The " White League ", an insurgent paramilitary group that supported the Democratic Partywas organized in and operated in the open, violently suppressing the black vote and running off Republican officeholders. Inin the Battle of Liberty Place5, members of the White League fought with city police to take over the state offices for the Democratic candidate for governor, holding them for three days.
Bysuch tactics resulted in the white Democratsthe so-called Redeemersregaining political control of the state legislature. The federal government gave up and withdrew its troops inending Reconstruction. Jim Crow era White Democrats passed Jim Crow laws, establishing racial segregation in public facilities. Inthe legislature passed a constitutional amendment incorporating a " grandfather clause " that effectively disfranchised freedmen as well as the propertied people of color manumitted before the war.
Unable to vote, African Americans could not serve on juries or in local office, and were closed out of formal politics for generations. The South was ruled by a white Democratic Party. Public schools were racially segregated and remained so until New Orleans' large community of well-educated, often French-speaking free persons of color gens de couleur libreswho had been free prior to the Civil War, fought against Jim Crow.
As part of their legal campaign, they recruited one of their own, Homer Plessyto test whether Louisiana's newly enacted Separate Car Act was constitutional.
Plessy boarded a commuter train departing New Orleans for Covington, Louisianasat in the car reserved for whites only, and was arrested. The case resulting from this incident, Plessy v. Fergusonwas heard by the U. Supreme Court in The court ruled that " separate but equal " accommodations were constitutional, effectively upholding Jim Crow measures.
In practice, African-American public schools and facilities were underfunded across the South. The Supreme Court ruling contributed to this period as the nadir of race relations in the United States. The rate of lynchings of black men was high across the South, as other states also disfranchised blacks and sought to impose Jim Crow. Nativist prejudices also surfaced. Anti-Italian sentiment in contributed to the lynchings of 11 Italianssome of whom had been acquitted of the murder of the police chief.
List of songs about New York City - Wikipedia
Some were shot and killed in the jail where they were detained. It was the largest mass lynching in U. The mob killed him and an estimated 20 other blacks; seven whites died in the days-long conflict, until a state militia suppressed it. Throughout New Orleans' history, until the early 20th Century when medical and scientific advances ameliorated the situation, the city suffered repeated epidemics of yellow fever and other tropical and infectious diseases. It was the nation's fifth-largest city in after New YorkPhiladelphiaBoston and Baltimore and was significantly larger than all other southern cities.
The growth of railways and highways decreased river traffic, diverting goods to other transportation corridors and markets. From the late s, most censuses recorded New Orleans slipping down the ranks in the list of largest American cities New Orleans' population still continued to increase throughout the period, but at a slower rate than before the Civil War.
By the midth Century, New Orleanians recognized that their city was no longer the leading urban area in the South. ByHoustonDallasand Atlanta exceeded New Orleans in size, and in Miami eclipsed New Orleans, even as the latter's population reached its historic peak.
The census recorded the first absolute decline in population since the city became part of the United States in The New Orleans metropolitan area continued expanding in population, albeit more slowly than other major Sun Belt cities. While the port remained one of the nation's largest, automation and containerization cost many jobs. The city's former role as banker to the South was supplanted by larger peer cities.
New Orleans' economy had always been based more on trade and financial services than on manufacturing, but the city's relatively small manufacturing sector also shrank after World War II. Despite some economic development successes under the administrations of DeLesseps "Chep" Morrison — and Victor "Vic" Schiro —metropolitan New Orleans' growth rate consistently lagged behind more vigorous cities.
Civil Rights Movement During the later years of Morrison's administration, and for the entirety of Schiro's, the city was a center of the Civil Rights Movement. A prominent and violent series of confrontations occurred in when the city attempted school desegregation, following the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v.
Board of Education When six-year-old Ruby Bridges integrated William Frantz Elementary School in the Ninth Wardshe was the first child of color to attend a previously all-white school in the South. The Civil Rights Movement's success in gaining federal passage of the Civil Rights Act of and the Voting Rights Act of renewed constitutional rights, including voting for blacks.
List of city nicknames in the United States
Together, these resulted in the most far-reaching changes in New Orleans' 20th century history. Fromthe African-American majority elected primarily officials from its own community.
They struggled to narrow the gap by creating conditions conducive to the economic uplift of the African-American community.
New Orleans became increasingly dependent on tourism as an economic mainstay during the administrations of Sidney Barthelemy — and Marc Morial — Relatively low levels of educational attainment, high rates of household poverty, and rising crime threatened the city's prosperity in the later decades of the century.
The most ambitious development during this period was a drainage plan devised by engineer and inventor A. Baldwin Wooddesigned to break the surrounding swamp's stranglehold on the city's geographic expansion.
Until then, urban development in New Orleans was largely limited to higher ground along the natural river levees and bayous. Wood's pump system allowed the city to drain huge tracts of swamp and marshland and expand into low-lying areas. Inthe Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south.
Many prominent abolitionists also called Cincinnati their home during this period, and made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. Cincinnati in with the Miami and Erie Canal in the foreground. InCincinnati laid out six streetcar lines; the cars were pulled by horses and the lines made it easier for people to get around the city.
It is the only municipally-owned interstate railway in the United States. Inoutrage over a manslaughter verdict in what many observers thought was a clear case of murder triggered the Courthouse riotsone of the most destructive riots in American history. Over the course of three days, 56 people were killed and over were injured. Inthe Cincinnati streetcar system began converting its horse-drawn cars to electric streetcars.
Cincinnati weathered the Great Depression better than most American cities of its size, largely due to a resurgence in river trade, which was less expensive than transporting goods by rail. The flood in was one of the worst in the nation's history and destroyed many areas along the Ohio valley.
Afterward the city built protective flood walls. Nicknames[ edit ] Cincinnati has many nicknamesincluding Cincy, "The Queen City,"  "The Queen of the West,"  "The Blue Chip City,"    and "The City of Seven Hills,"  These are more typically associated with professional, academic, and public relations references to the city, including restaurant names such as Blue Chip Cookiesand are not commonly used by locals in casual conversation.
The classic nickname "Queen City" is taken from an newspaper article discovered by the Church of Ouzo and confirmed by the Cincinnati Public Library https: In it, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow wrote of the city: Cincinnati for many years was known as "Porkopolis," a name perhaps not much coveted by the citizens of the Queen City but justified possibly by the large pork interests centered here for several decades.
Its Relations to the West and South" described and named seven specific hills. The hills form a crescent around the city: The name refers to ancient Rome that is reputed to be built on seven hills. Culture of Cincinnati Like all major cities in the United States, Cincinnati was proliferated by Americansbut also Ulster Scots known as the Scots Irishfrontiersmenand keelboaters.
Most of Cincinnati's longtime residents have kinships rooted throughout the Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana tristate and deeper. The first Methodist class came about incity residents for years already inspired by the Methodist circuit preachers; among Methodist institutes were The Christ Hospital as well as projects of the German Methodist Church. Tall Stacksheld every three or four years, celebrates the city's riverboat heritage. Cincinnati, being on the heartland plain, depended on trade with the slave states south of the Ohio River at a time when thousands of black people were settling in the free state of Ohio.
Most of them came after the Civil War, and were from Kentucky and Virginia with many of them fugitives who had sought freedom and work in the North.