Sotho Kingdom / Basutoland
I start my discussion in this essay by first describing what leadership and leadership style In Moshoeshoe moved from Menkhoaneng with his family and many of his . was one of the strategies he used to secure a safe place for his kingdom. This again resulted in a series of wars between Basotho and the Boers. In Moshoeshoe succeeded his father, Mokhacane, as the chief of his kingdom, and so brought the Basotho in contact with Christianity. The kingdom was founded by Moshoeshoe I, who faced by Boer precipitated by the military rise of Shaka Zulu in Natal from another. A superb diplomat, he sought to maintain cordial relations with all his neighbors, even.
The Tlokoa, Hlubi and Ngwane became three separate marauding bands who,seized grain and cattle from each other and from any smaller groups of people they encountered.
These plundering raids, compounded by the drought situation, brought about famine so severe that groups of people in several parts of Lesotho turned to cannibalism.
This difficult time, known as Lifaqane, was one of the darkest periods in the history of Lesotho. Faced with all this widespread devastation of the Lifaqane period, the Basotho were forced to adapt or perish.
About Lesotho - History of the Basotho
They soon realised that the most efficient defence strategy against marauding armies was the mountain fortress. Each of the principal chiefs selected a suitable sandstone plateau surrounded by cliffs as their stronghold -the Tlokoa near Ficksburg, the Hlubi near Clocolan and the Ngwane not far from the Berea district of Lesotho. Although Moshoeshoe and his people were not defeated, the clash had exposed the weakness of Butha Buthe as a stronghold. So Moshoeshoe decided to move to the Qiloane plateau, later to be called Thaba Bosiu, as the new site of refuge and defence.
Thaba Bosiu proved to be an impregnable fortress. In was successfully defended against an Amangwane army in ; against the Batlokoa during Moshoeshoe's absence on a cattle raid in ; and against the Ndebele of Mzilikaziin Meanwhile, Moshoeshoes's power and influence grew as he offered a friendly hand to his defeated enemies, giving them land and assistance to cultivate crops. Even former cannibals were converted into useful citizens in this way.
The Basotho nation was thus largely created from refugees who were shattered remnants of clans scattered by the Lifaqane.
Moshoeshoe brought them to his kingdom. From to Casalis played the role of Moshoeshoe's Foreign Advisor.
With his knowledge of the non-African world, he was able to inform and advise the king in his dealings with hostile foreigners. He also served as an interpreter for Moshoeshoe in his dealings with white people, and documented the Sesotho language. In the late s, Boer trekkers from the Cape Colony showed up on the western borders of Basutoland and subsequently claimed land rights.
The trekkers' pioneer in this area was Jan de Winnaarwho settled in the Matlakeng area in May—June As more farmers were moving into the area they tried to colonise the land between the two rivers, even north of the Caledonclaiming that it had been "abandoned" by the Sotho people. Moshoeshoe, when hearing of the trekker settlement above the junction, stated that " The next 30 years were marked by conflicts. Among the provisions of this treaty was the annexation of a tract of land now called the Orange River Sovereignty that many Boers had settled.
The outraged Boers were suppressed in a brief skirmish inbut remained bitter at both the British and the Sotho. A British force was defeated by the Sotho army at Kolonyama, touching off an embarrassing war for the British.
After repulsing another British attack inMoshoeshoe sent an appeal to the British commander that allowed him to save face. Once again, diplomacy saved the Sotho kingdom.
The emergence of the sotho kingdom under moshoeshoe and his relationship with his neighbours essay
After a final defeat of the Tloka inMoshoeshoe reigned supreme. However, the British pulled out of the region incausing the de facto formation of two independent states: In Moshoeshoe defeated the Boers in the Free State—Basotho War and in Moshoeshoe lost a great portion of the western lowlands.
The last war in ended only when the British and Moshoeshoe appealed to Queen Victoriawho agreed to make Basutoland a British protectorate in The British were eager to check Boer advances, and Moshoeshoe, with advice from Eugene Casalis, realised that continued pressure from the Boers would lead to the destruction of his kingdom.
It defined the boundaries of Basutoland and later Lesotho; those boundaries have not changed. The arable land west of the Caledon River remained in Boer hands, and is referred to as the Lost or Conquered Territory.
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This effectively reduced Moshoeshoe's kingdom to half its previous size. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Although he had ceded much territory, Moshoeshoe never suffered a major military defeat and retained most of his kingdom and all of his culture. His death in marked the end of the traditional era and the beginning of the modern colonial period.