List of Publications : Publications : The Alberta Women's Memory Project
Hutterites by Kosova et al. Hutterite community, the variation in non-genetic factors is Population and Development Review, 33(1), 1– In hoofdstuk 3 hebben we gegevens uit het TwinsUK register met gegevens. "'Boy Meets Girl': Constructing Heterosexuality in Two Victoria Churches, " Journal of the Canadian [Mennonites; ethnicity; British Columbia]. Epp , Marlene. Material History Review 33 (Spring ): [employment. These Mormons met hostility as they considered here, the Hutterites maintained an established communal lifestyle by Review 33(4)
They Knew Both Sides of Medicine: Cree Tales of Curing and Cursing. University of Manitoba Press, Perspectives on Immigrant Women. Essays on Women, eds. Gillian Creese and Veronica Strong-Boag: Press Gang Publishers, Luke's Home, Vancouver, Women in Alberta, eds. Cavanaugh and Randi R. Sarah Carter and Patricia McCormack: Athabasca University Press, Fighting Racism and Rearing the Next Generation. University of Toronto Press, Women and Reform in Canada, s — s, ed. The Women's Press, The Ideas of the English-Canadian Suffragists, Women Instructors at the Winnipeg School of Art in the s.
Women in Manitoba History, ed. Canadian Plains Research Centre, Rethinking Transgressive Sexuality during the Colonial Encounter.
Katie Pickles and Myra Rutherdale: Writing on the Frontier. Rural History in British Columbia, ed. Constance Lindsay Skinner and the Work of History.
English-Canadian Women and the Work of History, eds. Beverly Boutilier and Alison Prentice: Free Trader, Free Woman. Gender, Power and Race in British Columbia, Constance Lindsay Skinner and The Birthright. Celia Haig-Brown and David A. University of British Columbia Press, Good Intentions Gone Awry: Honouring Doukhobors on the Centenary of their Migration to Canada ined.
Enterprising Urban Women in British Columbia, Gender and Wealth in English Canada, Tuberculosis and the Nursing Profession in Saskatchewan, s — s. A Criminal Case Study. Card, John Foster, et. Selected Problems and Interpretations in Canadian History. Benoit, Cecilia, and Dena Carroll. Propaganda, Parody and a Women Parliament. McKenzie Company in Brandon.
An Ethnohistorical and Life History Approach. An Anthology in Honour of Wilson Duff, ed. British Columbia Provincial Museum, Florence Edenshaw Davidson, a Haida Woman. University of Washington Press, Pioneer Women of Saskatoon, Constructing Heterosexuality in Two Victoria Churches, Power, Wisdom and Strength, eds.
Christine Miller and Patricia Chuchryk: Faculty of Nursing on the Move: Nursing at the University of Calgary, University of Calgary Press, Essays in Western Women's History, eds. One Queer Mennonite's Journey. Female Vagrancy and Social Respectability in Alberta, A Lady Going to an Office! Historical Influences on Legal Culture, eds. Constance Backhouse and Jonathan Swainger: British Columbia and the Yukon, eds. Hamar Foster and John McLaren: Little Mary and the Egerton R.
Canadian Plains Research Center, Essays in Honour of John E. Theodore Binnema, Gerhard Ens and R. Power, Wisdom, and Strength, eds. Mary-Ellen Kelm and Lorna Townsend: Jean Coulthard and the University of British Columbia, The Missionary Oblate Sisters: McGill-Queen's University Press, University of Ottawa Press, The Journal of Eleanor Shepphird Matheson, The Business of Women: Marriage, Family and Entrepreneurship in British Columbia, Businesswomen in British Columbia, Manitoba History 8 Autumn Reconceiving the West Through Women's History, eds.
Indigenous Midwives in Western Canada. Emma Goldman's First Visit to Winnipeg in A Journal of Women Studies 26, 3 Family, Favouritism and Gender on a Prairie Farm in the s. Establishment and Early Years of the B. Barbara Roberts, A Reconstructed World: A Feminist Biography of Gertrude Richardson.
Women in the B. Nock and Celia Haig-Brown: University of Manitoba Press, Carter, Sarah. Jeremy Mouat and Catherine Cavanaugh: Oxford University Press, Great Plains Quarterly 29, 4 Fall The Importance of Being Monogamous: Marriage and Nation Building in Western Canada to Athabasca University and University of Alberta Press, The Alberta Campaign for Homestead Dower, Engendering Western Canadian Settlement.
Standing on New Ground: Gender and Change at the University of Alberta, Wife Beating in Alberta, Feminism, Law and Public Policy, ed. An Historical Perspective, The Regina Voice of Women, The View from Victoria. The Union and Equal Pay at B. Between the Lines, A Legacy of Servant-Leadership. Liberal Party and Women's Reforms, Pioneer Teacher of Spirit River. Mothers' Pensions in British Columbia, Women and Technology on the Canadian Prairies, Initiator of Alberta Theatre.
McClung and the Fiction of Eugenic Feminism. Of course, this assumes that there is an actual relationship between the two variables.
American Colony: Meet the Hutterites
If there is no relationship, then the value or quality of the dependent variable does not depend on the value of the independent variable. An independent variable is a variable whose value or quality is manipulated by the experimenter or, in the case of non-experimental analysis, changes in the society and is measured or observed systematically. Perhaps an example will help clarify. Promotion would be the dependent variable. Change in promotion is hypothesized to be dependent on gender.
Scientists use whatever they can — their own creativity, ideas from other fields, induction, deduction, systematic guessing, etc. There are no definitive guidelines for the production of new hypotheses. The history of science is filled with stories of scientists claiming a flash of inspiration, or a hunch, which then motivated them to look for evidence to support, refute, or refine their idea or develop an entirely new framework. Prediction[ edit ] A useful quantitative hypothesis will enable predictions, by deductive reasoning, that can be experimentally assessed.
If results contradict the predictions, then the hypothesis under examination is incorrect or incomplete and requires either revision or abandonment. If results confirm the predictions, then the hypothesis might be correct but is still subject to further testing. Predictions refer to experimental designs with a currently unknown outcome.
A prediction of an unknown differs from a consequence which can already be known. Testing[ edit ] Once a prediction is made, a method is designed to test or critique it. The investigator may seek either confirmation or falsification of the hypothesis, and refinement or understanding of the data.
Though a variety of methods are used by both natural and social scientists, laboratory experiments remain one of the most respected methods by which to test hypotheses. Scientists assume an attitude of openness and accountability on the part of those conducting an experiment. Detailed record keeping is essential, to aid in recording and reporting on the experimental results, and providing evidence of the effectiveness and integrity of the procedure.
They will also assist in reproducing the experimental results. This is a diagram of the famous Milgram Experiment which explored obedience and authority in light of the crimes committed by the Nazis in World War II.
The experiment's integrity should be ascertained by the introduction of a control or by observation of existing controls in natural settings. In experiments where controls are observed rather than introduced, researchers take into account potential variables e. On the other hand, in experiments where a control is introduced, two virtually identical experiments are run, in only one of which the factor being tested is varied.
This serves to further isolate any causal phenomena. For example in testing a drug it is important to carefully test that the supposed effect of the drug is produced only by the drug. Doctors may do this with a double-blind study: Neither the patients nor the doctor know who is getting the real drug, isolating its effects.
This type of experiment is often referred to as a true experiment because of its design. It is contrasted with alternative forms below. Once an experiment is complete, a researcher determines whether the results or data gathered are what was predicted or assumed in the literature beforehand.
If the experiment appears successful - i. An experiment is not an absolute requirement. In observation based fields of science actual experiments must be designed differently than for the classical laboratory based sciences.
Sociologists are more likely to employ quasi-experimental designs where data are collected from people by surveys or interviews, but statistical means are used to create groups that can be compared. For instance, in examining the effects of gender on promotions, sociologists may control for the effects of social class as this variable will likely influence the relationship.
Unlike a true experiment where these variables are held constant in a laboratory setting, quantitative sociologists use statistical methods to hold constant social class or, better stated, partial out the variance accounted for by social class so they can see the relationship between gender and promotions without the interference of social class.
The four components of research described above are integrated into the following steps of the research process. Identify your topic of interest and develop a research question in the form of a cause-and-effect relationship.
Conduct a review of the literature: Access studies that have already been performed by other researchers and published in peer-reviewed journals. You'll find out what is already known about the topic and where more research is needed. Refine your research question in a way that will add new information to the existing research literature, expressing it in the form of a testable research hypothesis. This includes identifying two or more variables and articulating how one variable is thought to influence the other.
Decide on a way to approach data collection that will provide a meaningful test of the research hypothesis. Some designs include data collection at only one point in time, but more complex questions require data gathering over time and with different groups of people. Select a research method: Once a design has been established, one or more actual data gathering strategies will need to be identified.
Each method comes with its own strengths and weaknesses, so sociologists are increasingly incorporating mixed-methods approaches in their research designs to enrich their knowledge of the topic. Some of the more popular research methods used by sociologists are: Operationalizing means deciding exactly how each variable of interest will be measured.
In survey research, this means deciding on the exact wording of the question or questions used to measure each variable, a listing of all possible responses to closed-ended questions, and a decision as to how to compute variables using multiple indicators. Identify the population and draw a sample: A population is the group a researcher is interested in learning about. Is it all students at one particular University?
All residents of the United States? All nonprofit organizations in a particular city? Because it is frequently too expensive to try to collect data from all units in a population, a sample of those units is often selected. Samples that use principles of random selection, where every unit in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample, have the best chance of reflecting the views and behaviors of the entire population of focus.
Data collection must be systematic and rigorous so that procedural mistakes do not create artificial results. Powerful statistical packages today make data analysis easier than it has ever been. Still, great care needs to be taken to accurately code the data i. Research results are shared with the larger community through presentations, reports, and publications in peer-reviewed journals. This allows others to consider the findings, the methods used, and any limitations of the study.
Qualitative sociologists generally employ observational and analytic techniques that allow them to contextualize observed patterns in relation to existing hierarchies or assumptions within natural settings. Thus, while the true experiment is ideally suited for the performance of quantitative science, especially because it is the best quantitative method for deriving causal relationships, other methods of hypothesis testing are commonly employed in the social sciences, and qualitative methods of critique and analysis are utilized to fact check the assumptions and theories created upon the basis of "controlled" rather than natural circumstances.
Evaluation and Iteration[ edit ] The scientific process is iterative. At any stage it is possible that some consideration will lead the scientist to repeat an earlier part of the process.
For instance, failure of a hypothesis to produce interesting and testable predictions may lead to reconsideration of the hypothesis or of the definition of the subject. It is also important to note that science is a social enterprise, and scientific work will become accepted by the community only if it can be verified and it "makes sense" within existing scientific beliefs and assumptions about the world when new findings complicate these assumptions and beliefs, we generally witness paradigm shifts in science .
All scientific knowledge is in a state of flux, for at any time new evidence could be presented that contradicts a long-held hypothesis, and new perspectives e. For this reason, scientific journals use a process of peer reviewin which scientists' manuscripts are submitted by editors of scientific journals to usually one to three fellow usually anonymous scientists familiar with the field for evaluation.
The referees may or may not recommend publication, publication with suggested modifications, or, sometimes, publication in another journal. Sometimes peer review inhibits the circulation of unorthodox work, and at other times may be too permissive.
The peer review process is not always successful, but has been very widely adopted by the scientific community.
American Colony: Meet the Hutterites (TV Series – ) - IMDb
The reproducibility or replication of quantitative scientific observations, while usually described as being very important in a scientific method, is actually seldom reported, and is in reality often not done.
Referees and editors often reject papers purporting only to reproduce some observations as being unoriginal and not containing anything new. Occasionally reports of a failure to reproduce results are published - mostly in cases where controversy exists or a suspicion of fraud develops. The threat of failure to replicate by others as well as the ongoing qualitative enterprise designed to explore the veracity of quantitative findings in non-controlled settingshowever, serves as a very effective deterrent for most quantitative scientists, who will usually replicate their own data several times before attempting to publish.
Sometimes useful observations or phenomena themselves cannot be reproduced in fact, this is almost always the case in qualitative science spanning physical and social science disciplines. They may be rare, or even unique events. Reproducibility of quantitative observations and replication of experiments is not a guarantee that they are correct or properly understood. Errors can all too often creep into more than one laboratory or pattern of interpretation mathematical or qualitative utilized by scientists.
Correlation and Causation[ edit ] This diagram illustrates the difference between correlation and causation, as ice cream consumption is correlated with crime, but both are dependent on temperature.
Thus, the correlation between ice cream consumption and crime is spurious. In the scientific pursuit of quantitative prediction and explanation, two relationships between variables are often confused: While these terms are rarely used in qualitative science, they lie at the heart of quantitative methods, and thus constitute a cornerstone of scientific practice.
Correlation refers to a relationship between two or more variables in which they change together. A positive correlation means that as one variable increases e. A negative correlation is just the opposite; as one variable increases e. Causation refers to a relationship between two or more variables where one variable causes the other. In order for a variable to cause another, it must meet the following three criteria: Ice cream consumption is positively correlated with incidents of crime.
Employing the quantitative method outlined above, the reader should immediately question this relationship and attempt to discover an explanation. It is at this point that a simple yet noteworthy phrase should be introduced: If you look back at the three criteria of causation above, you will notice that the relationship between ice cream consumption and crime meets only one of the three criteria they change together. The real explanation of this relationship is the introduction of a third variable: Ice cream consumption and crime increase during the summer months.