Medieval churches: sources and forms (article) | Khan Academy
3. the central point in the church where the nave, choir and trancepts meet. 4. the area of intersection in a Cruciform church, formed by joining the Nave, Transept. Apse A semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault at the east end A place of worship sometimes attached to a large church and found in the ceilings of buildings, particularly at the intersection of a vault. An upper level of a Roman basilica or of the nave of a Romanesque or Gothic church. your time, to establish a truth which no one in this meeting is prepared to question. be found at the intersection of the nave and chancel with the transept.
In traditional medieval design, this faced the west and is called the West End. The entrance or lobby area, located at the west end of the nave. The primary area of public observance of the Mass. Located around the Apse of the church, accessible from the Ambulatory.
An elevated platform that contains the main altar and associated liturgical elements that is restricted for ceremonial use by the clergy, often fenced from adjoining spaces. It is centered on the main east—west axis within the east end and generally located within the choir or the apse. Later designs placed the transept about two-thirds of the way from the West End to the East End.
Transept | architecture | angelfirenm.info
This created the Latin cross plan. It usually separates the nave from the choir. Here the interior reached its fullest height. Because these side aisles were lower, the roof over this section was below the roofline of the nave, allowing for windows near the ceiling of the nave.
This band of windows was called the clerestory. At the far end of the nave, away from the main door, was a semi-circular extension, usually with a half-dome roof. This area was the apse, and is where the magistrate or other senior officials would hold court. Because this plan allowed for many people to circulate within a large, and awesome, space, the general plan became an obvious choice for early Christian buildings. When a new church was to be built, the patron saint was selected and the altar location laid out.
This was the orientation of the new building. Daily access may be through a door on the north or south side. The largest, central, western door may have been reserved for ceremonial purposes. Note how the miniaturist has apparently suggested the apse context of this scene by enframing it within a semicircle. Pilate as magistrate is placed in center and on either side of him appear imperial representations.
For anyone brought up in the Roman world, the apse clearly carried with it connotations of imperial legal power.
The Basilica Ulpia constructed under Trajan at the beginning of the second century as part of his Forum in Rome is a good example of a civic basilica: Basilicas were also adapted to the function as audience halls as part of palace complexes. A good example of this is presented by the Palace Basilica of Constantine in the northern German town of Trier: Although more recently converted to the function as a Christian church, this building was clearly designed as an imperial audience hall.
Imagine coming into the presence of Constantine in this space, or imagine a grand entrance of Constantince into this space. Relate it to the texts included on the page entitled Imperial Panegyrics.
- Church architectural elements
- Architecture of cathedrals and great churches
It was clearly this form that became the basis of the so-called Early Christian baslicas. Possibly within a month of Constantine's defeat of Maxentius at the battle of the Milvian Bridge, work began on the church which would be the official seat of the Bishop of Rome, St. John in the Lateran. The church was built on the site previously occupied by the barracks of his former rival.
Adjoining the church was the Sessorian Palace, Constantine's Roman residence. This location clearly speaks of the control Constantine intended to have over the church.
This size alone suggests the dramatic transformation Christianity underwent when it fell under Imperial patronage. A list of furnishing of the original church suggests its splendor: A silver paten weighing twenty pounds. Twenty bronze lights each weighing ten pounds.
Medieval churches: sources and forms
Twelve candlesticks each weighing thirty pounds. Imagine the light effects of the candles and lamps with the gold and silver furnishings. Egeria, a Spanish pilgrim, wrote this following description of Constantine's Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem: The decorations are too marvelous for words.
All you can see is gold, jewels and silk You simply cannot imagine the number and sheer weight of the candles, tapers, lamps and everything elese they use for the services They are beyond description, and so is the magnificent building itself.
Cathedral floorplan - Wikipedia
It was built by Constantine and The original church of St. John the Lateran was replaced by a 17th and 18th century building. The original Constantinian church is known only through the foundations archaeologists uncovered in the s.
The early fifth Roman basilica of Sta. Sabina provides an excellent extant example of this type of building: