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His close relationship with Neferure came across in the ten statues he emphasizing his literal closeness to the royal family and the great trust they had in him. Hatshepsut's son, Thutmose III, tried to have all traces of her wiped from history. A pharaoh's relationship with Amun had important political implications. It could be used to trust and respect. Historian Joyce The co-regency shared between Hatshepsut and Thutmose III served to provide stability for the young king. or compelled Hatshepsut to become king, the relationship between Hatshepsut and Thutmose III during their joint reign, Hatshepsut's adoption of the Egyptian.
This would create a gap of 13 to 14 years where Thutmose II's reign would fit in between Hatshepsut and Thutmose I's rule. Secondly, new archaeological work by French Egyptologists at Karnak has produced evidence of a pylon and an opulent festival court of Thutmose II in front of the 4th pylon according to Luc Gabolde. Thutmose III here later replaced depictions of Hatshepsut with those by Thutmose II in those parts of the temple that are proposed to have been executed by the latter king before Hatshepsut took over the temple following Thutmose II's death.
Campaigns[ edit ] Upon Thutmose's coronation, Kush rebelled, as it had the habit of doing upon the transition of Egyptian kingship. The Nubian state had been completely subjugated by Thutmose I but some rebels from Khenthennofer rose up, and the Egyptian forces retreated into a fortress built by Thutmose I. Thutmose also seems to have fought against the Shasu Bedouin in the Sinaiin a campaign mentioned by Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet. The mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on July 1, There is a strong familial resemblance to the mummy of Thutmose I, his likely father, as the mummy's face and shape of the head are very similar.
The body of Thutmose II suffered greatly at the hands of ancient tomb robbers, with his left arm broken off at the shoulder-joint, the forearm separated at the elbow joint, and his right arm chopped off below the elbow.
His anterior abdominal wall and much of his chest had been hacked at, possibly by an axe. In addition, his right leg had been severed from his body. Originally buried alongside her father, Thutmose I, her body was moved when a new tomb was created for him. Her mummy has only recently been identified, and analysis appears to show that she suffered from diabetes and probably died of bone cancer.
After her death, Thutmose III had a long and successful reign. Hatshepsut was suddenly recast as a dangerous liability.HATSHEPSUT - The Queen Who Would Be King (AMAZING ANCIENT EGYPT HISTORY DOCUMENTARY)
A brutal campaign of destruction and mutilation took place at many of her greatest monuments. Her cartouche was hacked out of inscriptions, her image chipped off reliefs and sculptures of her were either toppled or had the male pharaonic elements removed.
This assault on her physical memory was not extensive; many smaller monuments were left intact. They targeted the largest and most impressive of her architectural achievements where Hatshepsut was most publically visible and therefore at her most dangerous. The severity of this action was only matched by the treatment meted out two centuries later to the heretic king, Akhenaten, whose religious reforms shook Egyptian society.
For a while, many Egyptologists assumed this vindictive action was undertaken by Thutmose III in retaliation for being forced into the humiliating position of junior co-regent to a woman. Her use of male body imagery was suggested as an attempt to deceive Egyptian society, in an apparently analogous way to the Pope Joan legend.
Some depicted her as scheming and overly-ambitious, wrestling power away from the rightful king.
Hatshepsut was even criticised for failing to pursue suitably militaristic policies due to her femininity. Others focused upon finding the real male power behind the throne — a favourite candidate was her Royal Steward, Senenmut. It has demonstrated that Hatshepsut followed a path of kingship very similar to the most celebrated male pharaohs.
File:Dual stela of Hatsheput and Thutmose III (Vatican).jpg - Wikimedia Commons
Other arguments, however, betray preconceptions about the role of women in Ancient Egypt, ideas not borne out by the evidence. In comparison to contemporary societies Egyptian women had better legal rights, a greater role in public life, participated more widely in economic activities and were given the same payments or privileges as men for performing the same task. Female overseers, governors and judges are attested.
Of course, Ancient Egypt was not a female utopia, but neither can it be shown that a female pharaoh was considered inherently dangerous. No equivalent measures were taken to erase the name of Sobekneferu or any other female pharaoh. Sons were favoured over daughters for the succession, but a male pharaoh was clearly highly desirable, not essential. The answer is because Hatshepsut was dangerous to Thutmose III and Amenhotep II, not because of her gender but because she had demonstrated the power non-pharaonic royals could wield.
Describe the Relationship Between Hatshepsut and Thutmose Iii Essay
Amenhotep II was, like his father and grandfather, also the son of a less prestigious wife, and his mother was not royal. His legitimacy had to be secured against family rivals. This strategy was unsuccessful — a younger son usurped his chosen successor.
Nor did it prevent the accession of another female pharaoh just over a century after the reign of Hatshepsut. The destruction of her memory was not a vindictive frenzy borne of misogyny but a coldly calculated political act, advantageous to her immediate successors.
Others have been able to celebrate her achievements on their own merit and accept Hatshepsut as one of the most successful pharaohs to rule Ancient Egypt, male or female. For example, during the Cairo metro construction project her name was used for the tunnel boring machine in honour of her grand infrastructure developments.
Puyemre the second priest was Hapuseneb's son-in-law and, like many other officials, he served Thutmose III after Hatshepsut's death. Hapuseneb's relationship with other high officials at Karnak meant he controlled religious affairs.
He was much more important than Senenmut Dormana trusted official of the queen, tutor of Hatshepsut's daughter, scholar, financial expert, and a man who got things done. He was also spokesperson for the co-regency. Rumors about Senenmut's liaison with Hatshepsut are extremely unlikely to be true.
Other officials from Karnak temple held governmental positions. This era was marked by the rapidly increasing power of the Amun priests. During her reign, Hatshepsut built extensively: In Years 17—20, she erected her Red Chapel at Karnak Chevrier and Lacaureconstructed buildings, erected the eighth pylon in Year 18, and built six barque shrines. In addition, she constructed the Netjery-menu, a building shared with Thutmose II Gaboldeand four obelisks — a fifth obelisk was erected in Qasr Ibrim, and the sixth is still in situ in the Aswan quarry.
The Temple of Mut-in-Isheru, north of Karnak, also dates to this period. There were expeditions to Punt Year 9 to bring back incense trees to plant at Karnak, and two to the Sinai turquoise mines — the first expedition in over a hundred years Years 13 and Hatshepsut was devoted to her god Amun — probably because she had been God's Wife of Amun.
As ruler, Hatshepsut made use of Amun's oracles, for the god's words placed her policies beyond criticism.