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The first is the vertical jurisdictional divide between different governmental levels; the second is the relations between the local government and key industries and other stakeholders. The implementation of long-term institutional governance measures will further support urban sustainability strategies and initiatives. Outcomes and Reassessment Assessing Impacts from Local to Global Conceptually, the idea that there is an ecological footprint, and that sustainable cities are places that seek to minimize this footprint, makes great sense Portney, How many goods are imported into and exported from a city is not known in practically any U.
Getting an accurate picture of the environmental impacts of all human activity, including that of people working in the private sector, is almost impossible. However, some cities are making a much more concerted effort to understand the full range of the negative environmental impacts they produce, and working toward reducing those impacts even when impacts are external to the city itself.
Cities that are serious about sustainability will seek to minimize their negative environmental impacts across all scales from local to global.
Develop Ground Truthing and Public Buy-in As discussed by Baialthough there are factors beyond local control, the main obstacles to bringing the global concerns onto the local level are the reflection of contradictory perceptions, concerns, interests, and priorities, rather than the scale of the issue.
Therefore, the elimination of these obstacles must start by clarifying the nature of the issue, identifying which among the obstacles are real and which can be handled by changing perceptions, concerns, and priorities at the city level. For instance, over the past 50 years, many U. However, recent scientific analyses have shown that major cities are actually the safest areas in the United States, significantly more so than their suburban and rural counterparts, when considering that safety involves more than simply violent crime risks but also traffic risks and other threats to safety Myers et al.
It is crucial for city leaders to be aware of such perceptions, both true and artificial, and the many opportunities that may arise in directly addressing public concerns, as well as the risks and consequences of not doing so. Some of the major advantages of cities as identified by Rees include 1 lower costs per capita of providing piped treated water, sewer systems, waste collection, and most other forms of infrastructure and public amenities; 2 greater possibilities for, and a greater range of options for, material recycling, reuse, remanufacturing, and the specialized skills and enterprises needed to make these things happen; 3 high population density, which reduces the per capita demand for occupied land; 4 great potential through economies of scale, co-generation, and the use of waste process heat from industry or power plants, to reduce the per capita use of fossil fuel for space heating; and 5 great potential for reducing mostly fossil energy consumption by motor vehicles through walking.
Learning from Outcomes and Ongoing Reassessment of Goals and Priorities The continuous reassessment of the impact of the strategy implemented requires the use of metrics, and a DPSIR framework will be particularly useful to assess the progress of urban sustainability. Classifying these indicators as characterizing a driver, a pressure, the state, the impact, or a response may allow for a detailed approach to be used even in the absence of a comprehensive theory of the phenomena to be analyzed.
The task is, however, not simple. The challenge is to develop a new understanding of how urban systems work and how they interact with environmental systems on both the local and global scale.
Three elements are part of this framework: Key variables to describe urban and environmental systems and their interrelationships; Measurable objectives and criteria that enable the assessment of these interrelationships; and Feedback mechanisms that enable the signals of system performance to generate behavioral responses from the urban community at both the individual and institutional levels.
A DPSIR framework is intended to respond to these challenges and to help developing urban sustainability policies and enact long-term institutional governance to enable progress toward urban sustainability.
The following discussion of research and development needs highlights just a few ways that science can contribute to urban sustainability. This discussion focuses on promoting a systems approach—connections, processes, and linkages—that requires data, benchmarks, and guidance on what variables are relevant and what processes are most critical to understanding the relationships among the parts of the system.
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As such, there are many important opportunities for further research. These opportunities can be loosely placed in three categories: First, large data gaps exist. Efforts have been made by researchers and practitioners alike to create sets of indicators to assist in measuring and comparing the sustainability of municipalities, but few thresholds exist, and those that do often seem unattainable to municipal leaders.
This is a target that leading cities have begun to adopt, but one that no U. Second, cities exist as part of integrated regional and global systems that are not fully understood. Further mapping of these processes, networks, and linkages is important in order to more fully understand the change required at the municipal level to support global sustainability.
Third, the critical task of developing finance models to support urban sustainability action requires urgent attention. A summary of major research and development needs is as follows. Urban Metabolism Urban metabolism 2 may be defined as the sum of the technical and socioeconomic processes that occur in cities, resulting in growth, production of energy, and elimination of waste Kennedy et al.
See also Holmes and Pincetl Page 38 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This task is complex and requires further methodological developments making use of harmonized data, which may correlate material and energy consumption with their socioeconomic drivers, as attempted by Niza et al. Once established, urban metabolism models supported by adequate tools and metrics enable a research stream to explore the optimization of resource productivity and the degree of circularity of resource streams that may be helpful in identifying critical processes for the sustainability of the urban system and opportunities for improvement.
However, what is needed is information on flows between places, which allows the characterization of networks, linkages, and interconnections across places.
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This type of information is critically important to develop new analyses to characterize and monitor urban sustainability, especially given the links between urban places with global hinterlands.
Research Aimed at Detecting Thresholds To improve the threshold knowledge of sustainability indicators and their utility in defining an action strategy, it is necessary to have empirical tests of the performance and redundancy of these indicators and indicator systems.
In each parameter of sustainability, disruptions can only be withstood to a certain level without possible irreversible consequences. To avoid negative consequences, it is important to identify the threshold that is available and then determine the actual threshold values.
The scientific study of environmental thresholds, their understanding, modeling, and prediction should also be integrated into early warning systems to enable policy makers to understand the challenges and impacts and respond effectively Srebotnjak et al.
Understanding Different Types of Data There is a need to go beyond conventional modes of data observation and collection and utilize information contributed by users e. The key here is to be able to provide information on processes across multiple scales, from individuals and households to blocks and neighborhoods to cities and regions. Decision-Making Processes That Link Across Scales Very little information on the phases of urban processes exists, be it problem identification or decision making.
Information is needed on how the processes operate, including by whom and where outcomes and inputs are determined as well as tipping points in the system. All of the above research needs derive from the application of a complex system perspective to urban sustainability. In other words, the needs call for the study of cities as complex systems, including the processes at different scales, determining factors, and tipping points to avoid adverse consequence.
Ultimately, the goal of urban sustainability is to promote and enable the long-term well-being of people and the planet, yet doing so requires recognition of the biophysical constraints on all human and natural systems, as well as the acknowledgment that urban sustainability is multiscale and multidimensional, both encompassing and transcending urban jurisdictions.
Gram Panchayat is responsible for looking after such areas.
Difference Between Urban and Rural (with Comparison Chart) - Key Differences
Further, there is no municipal board, in the villages and maximum percentage of the male population are engaged in agriculture and related activities.
Key Differences Between Urban and Rural The fundamental differences between urban and rural are discussed in the following points: A settlement where the population is very high and has the features of a built environment an environment that provides basic facilities for human activityis known as urban.
Rural is the geographical region located in the outer parts of the cities or towns. The life in urban areas is fast and complicated, whereas rural life is simple and relaxed.
The Urban settlement includes cities and towns. On the other hand, the rural settlement includes villages and hamlets. There is greater isolation from nature in urban areas, due to the existence of the built environment. Conversely, rural areas are in direct contact with nature, as natural elements influence them. Urban people are engaged in non-agricultural work, i. In contrast, the primary occupation of rural people is agriculture and animal husbandry. Population wise, urban areas are densely populated, which is based on the urbanisation, i.
On the contrary, the rural population is sparse, which has an inverse relationship with agriculturism. Urban areas are developed in a planned and systematic way, according to the process of urbanisation and industrialisation.
Development in rural areas is seldom, based on the availability of natural vegetation and fauna in the region. When it comes to social mobilisation, urban people are highly intensive as they change their occupation or residence frequently in search of better opportunities.
However, in rural areas occupational or territorial mobility of the people is relatively less intensive.WHAT ARE THE SEXUAL BASES?! - Don't Blame Me w/ Meghan Rienks