Princely States - British Raj
Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events. Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition . He wanted both India and Pakistan to recognise his princely state as an independent neutral country. Despite the. Without the princely states, the Dominion of India would comprise the princely states which enjoyed special recognition by and relationship with the British Raj. While this surprised many in both India and Pakistan, neither party could. Princely States of India (native states) · History of India–Pakistan Relations . During the Indian independence why were princely states given the option to be .
The Purna Swaraj or complete independence, which is the objective of the Congress, is for the whole of India, inclusive of the States, for the integrity and unity of India must be maintained in freedom as it has been maintained in subjection. Menon as the secretary. Together they, under the guidance of Lord Mountbatten, were given the responsibility to coax, cajole and convince the princes to accede to the Indian union.
Bikaner, Baroda and few other states from Rajasthan were the first ones to join the union. Alternatively, there were several other states that were adamant to not shake hands with India. Some of them thought this to be the best moment to acquire independent statehood, while there were others who wanted to become a part of Pakistan. Here are the cases of five states that opposed the idea of joining India.
The state was strategically placed for maritime trade and was rich in both human and mineral resources. Latest Videos Rajnath Singh: How can Naxals be called Gandhians with Guns? The next step they followed was the objective of increasing the authority of Indian Government in these states and in changing their administration. The formal process which they used was based on two main agreements, first being that of convincing the princes to sign the Standstill Agreement and second being the signing of Instrument of Accession Ramusack, The Standstill agreement meant that India will maintain the same agreements and ties with the princely states as they were carried out by British while the Instrument of Accession as name suggests meant that the princes agreed to accede their states with the India.
After signing of accession agreement next steps taken by the Indians were to build the authority of Indian government in the states and eventually make whole of India as one nation and implementation of the constitution equally in whole of India.
Five states that refused to join India after Independence
The personal privileges of the princes called the privy pursethe exemption from customs duty, and customary dignities was promised in return for giving up the power and rule of their states— which survived, only to be abolished in Roberts, To fulfill the task of integration in its true spirit there were mainly two formulas derived by the two masterminds of States Department.
One was the idea to merge the smaller states that were not seen by the Government of India to be viable administrative units either into neighboring provinces, or with other princely states to create a "princely union" Copland, The possible opposition of this approach is that it meant that India is not dealing them according to the Instrument of accession which was just recently signed. But to counter that argument Patel and Menon emphasized that without integration, the economies of states would collapse, and anarchy would arise if the princes were unable to provide democracy and govern properly.
They pointed out that many of the smaller states were very small and lacked resources to sustain their economies and support their growing populations.
Many also imposed tax rules and other restrictions that impeded free trade, and which had to be dismantled in a united India Menon, Ahmed 6 The second idea involved a long process which was commutatively dependent on a four step integration process which included first the merger, secondly the democratization, then centralization and finally the reorganization.
For the second step of democratization the States Department signed the agreement with the princely unions making their rulers constitutional monarchs which meant that the people of these states were now governed directly under the Indian constitution and the role of ruler became like that of Governor Copland, Then came the step of centralization in which the states were made to sign agreements which replaced Indian constitution and laws with the law and governing system of those states, thus making them out of power Furber, In the last step of reorganization the conventional rulers were replaced by Governors, finally ending the princely order to an end Copland, In both legal and practical terms, the territories that formerly were part of the princely states were now fully integrated into India and did not differ in any way from those that were formerly part of British India Gledhill, Now I will discuss and analyze the sovereignty status of four states namely Hyderabad, Kashmir, Mysore and Junagadh individually in the British Raj and their status after the lapse of the paramountcy.
When India came under direct control of British Crown Hyderabad was a great source of earning for British as it was one of the wealthiest states in the whole world.
It enjoyed somewhat friendly relations with British as compared to Independent India. It however convinced the Nizam to sign the Standstill agreement, but due to the rising struggle of Nizam to remain independent and Indian allegations on Hyderabad of funding Pakistan and buying arms provided them a reason to invade Hyderabad under an operation named Operation Polo.
For example we can take examples of Israel and Palestine. Same was the case with Kashmir as its Maharaja also wanted to remain independent.
At the time of the Partition of India. Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, preferred to remain independent and did not want to join either the Union of India or the Dominion of Pakistan. He wanted both India and Pakistan to recognize his princely state as an independent neutral country like Switzerland Mahajan, Kashmir had a Muslim majority but was ruled by a Hindu Raja, which was opposite case of Hyderabad.
When Kabailis from the Paksitan tried to invade Kashmir, Maharaja had no option left but to ask India for help but Mountbatten refused to do so unless he signed instrument of accession which he signed later. Thus in this way Kashmir lost its sovereignty by joining India as well as some part of it was taken over by Pakistan. But still the issue of Kashmir is unresolved till date.
The case of Mysore was different from both of Hyderabad and Kashmir.
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At the time of lapse of paramountcy Mysore signed Instrument of accession with India and lost it all sovereignty. The functions of paramountcy were exercised through the Crown Representative, who was also the Governor General of India and whose functions relating to the relations of the British Crown with the Rulers of all princely states remained distinct.
A separate machinery as well as procedure were evolved for the exercise of these functions. Fromthe states were represented in the Chamber of Princes, which held its meetings in New Delhi.
The most important states were ranked among the salute states. These were the parts of the Indian subcontinent which had not been conquered or annexed by the British but were subject to subsidiary alliances.
There were more than states of various sorts when Britain granted the Indian independence 15 August About are commonly listed as "states", ruled by potentates with a variety of titles, such as Raja, Maharaja, Nawab, Khan or Nizam.
The rest were "estates" jagir"estate revenue grants" thikanaand "land holders" zamindarwith jagirdars, thakurs, or zamindarsno of gretarer or lesser prominence and title. Only 21 had actual state governments, and only three were large Mysore, Hyderabad and Kashmir. The vast majority of the Indian states were not entitled to gun-salutes.
These were mainly smaller geographical units, some little more than a few square miles. They may have been acquired by conquest or owed allegiance to some larger regional power at some previous time in history.
The powers enjoyed by the rulers of these states were usually more limited than those of the salute states and they were not entitled to the hereditary style of Highness. The Indian Independence Actthe British gave up their suzerainty of the states and each was left free to choose to join India or Pakistan. Some of the rulers explored the possibility of a federation of the states separate from either, but this came to nothing.
Most of the states decided to accede to India or Pakistan. Others which held out for independence were later invaded by India: The Dewan of Travancore chose to remain an independent country.