Predictors of divorce and relationship dissolution stages

predictors of divorce and relationship dissolution stages

The interpersonal communication that occurs during a relationship deterioration/ dissolution looks to explain the possible "why" behind the relationship breakup and the communication steps that a breakup seems to follow. Studies have looked at the predictors of breakups, the breakup process, the . Steve Duck's ( ) four stages of relationship dissolution, each very. marital interaction are most predictive of divorce? Which dating .. relationship dissolution, which was also associated with waning levels of commitment to the. sequences of relationship dissolution – the impact of divorce on children – . In this chapter, we examine the predictors of relationship dissolution and divorce pri - low levels of education all increase the chances that marriages will end in.

Thus, predictors of short term dissolutions may not be generalizable to dissolutions in long-term relationships. This finding is yet to be replicated using different stages of parenthood as time metric. The restriction of freedom in the early parenting years may be a particular important mechanism underlying the steep decline in relationship satisfaction among parents of children aged two years or lower Twenge et al.

Parental couple relationships are, however, more stable than relationships between childless persons, especially during the preschool years Rodrigues et al. It has been argued that relationship quality and commitment are the two basic motivations behind relationship dissolution Schoebi et al. The commitment towards young children who need full attention from their parents may thus decrease the chances of leaving an unsatisfying relationship in the early parenting years.

predictors of divorce and relationship dissolution stages

However, low relationship quality in early childhood years may have long-term consequences for relationship dissolution when children get older and parents may feel less restraint to leave their partners. Such mechanisms have yet to be examined in long-term longitudinal studies. It has been argued that a second high-risk period for families occur when children are entering adolescence and parents are facing their own challenges of midlife Cherlin ; Steinberg Increased child autonomy may be associated with less restrictions of parental freedom, but may also be accompanied by new challenges for the couple relationship as children reach adolescence and go through pubertal development.

Accordingly, relationship dissolutions are just as likely, or even more likely, to occur after the early child-rearing years, compared to parents with young children Waite and Lillard ; Statistics Norway ; U. Few studies of parental couple relationships have covered the adolescent child-rearing years for exceptions, see Whiteman et al. We therefore have limited knowledge about whether predictors of dissolutions in the late child-rearing years differ from those associated with dissolutions in the early child-rearing years, and whether dissolutions in the late child-rearing years can be foreshadowed as early as when the children are toddlers.

predictors of divorce and relationship dissolution stages

A large body of research has highlighted the importance of investigating how aspects of relationship quality and stability are associated with intrinsic vulnerabilities and with environmental stressors couples are exposed to Bradbury and Karney ; Karney and Bradbury Knowledge is limited about to what degree such vulnerabilities and stressors may be associated with dissolution timing.

Intrinsic strengths and vulnerabilities of each partner may be involved in enduring relationship dynamics that are established early and maintained throughout the course of the relationship Huston et al. Individual characteristics may thus be associated with early and late dissolutions to a different degree, due to time-varying contextual factors, such as different stages of parenthood.

Extraversion is assumed to be associated with dissolutions through a mechanism where extraverted people are more socially active, thereby meeting more potential new partners Malouff et al.

Applied to parenthood as context, it seems plausible that restrictions of freedom in the early parenting years may imply a smaller access to social arenas, involving a weaker association between extraversion and relationship dissolution in the early compared to the late child-rearing years.

Pertaining to stressors, dissolutions have been linked to living condition strains such as problems with work, housing and health Bradbury et al. Associations between parental stress related to child adjustment and care-taking and relationship outcomes in the general population have however rarely been studied Lavee et al.

Studies on clinical samples have found that parenting children with a neuropsychological diagnosis was associated with divorce timing among married parents. Pertaining to population based samples, an association between externalizing problems among three year old girls and parental divorce within the next nine years was also found in a population based study Robbers et al.

More knowledge is needed about the associations between persistent child related strains and prevalence and timing of relationship dissolutions throughout the child-rearing years. Are associations between early predictors and long term dissolutions mediated by relationship satisfaction or child-rearing conflicts? It has been suggested that a cascade toward dissolution begins with declines in maternal relationship satisfaction after the arrival of the first baby Cowan and Cowan Examining mediation effects may be useful in order to understand the mechanisms involved in long term changes in couple relationships.

Enduring strengths and vulnerabilities, early stressors, and aspects of relationship quality may be involved in a continual chain of factors, being associated with late dissolutions via long term associations with other risk factors, such as decreased relationship satisfaction or increased conflicts.

Signs Your Marriage Is Over: The 6 Stages of Marriage

Gottman and Levenson found support for a short-term cascade model, linking relationship quality to divorce over a four year period. Furthermore, they found that a composite measure involving intrinsic and environmental factors was associated with each step in their marital cascade model, indicating that a broader range of variables than relationship quality alone may be involved in cascades towards relationship dissolution.

predictors of divorce and relationship dissolution stages

Such cascades are yet to be better understood and investigated over longer periods of time. According to a cascade model, associations between early child-rearing stressors and relationship qualities and long term dissolutions should be mediated by intermediate relationship quality. The short time frame of this investigation may thus describe the beginning of a slow running cascade that may eventually lead to divorce after a longer period of time.

Thus, stressors and low levels of positivity in the early child-rearing years may be associated with late child-rearing dissolutions through a cascade where low relationship satisfaction eventually causes the termination of the relationship. Another possible cascade from early stressors and relationship quality to late child-rearing dissolutions may go through increasing child-rearing conflicts.

Conflicts and negative relationship aspects may be linked to early dissolutions primarily because they are a sign of relationship deterioration, and thereby foreshadow an approaching dissolution.

predictors of divorce and relationship dissolution stages

Thus, conflicts in the later child-rearing years may predict later dissolutions because they are more proximal to the event. An alternative cascade may thus involve an association from early child-rearing stressors and low relationship quality to conflicts or negative spousal interactions that in turn lead to relationship dissolutions in the late child-rearing years. Adolescent child-rearing has been linked to increased negativity and conflicts between parents Whiteman et al.

Child-rearing conflicts could be especially salient during the adolescent offspring years, because increased psychological independence from parents may increase parent—child difficulties and these may spill over to become a source of conflict between the parents Steinberg Child-rearing conflicts among parents of adolescent have also been associated with decreased relationship satisfaction Cui and Donnellan There are therefore compelling reasons to expect that possible associations between early child-rearing stressors and dissolutions in the late child-rearing years may be mediated by increased child-rearing conflicts.

Testing for mediation effects of both relationship satisfaction and child-rearing conflicts between the early child-rearing years and the adolescent offspring years can potentially increase our understanding of the mechanisms involved in parental dissolutions throughout the child-rearing years. Child related strains were investigated along with a variety of other relational, intrinsic, environmental and socio-demographic predictors of relationship dissolution.

Mediation effects of relationship satisfaction and child-rearing conflicts on long term dissolutions were also investigated, in order to increase our understanding of possible long term cascades towards dissolution. Most prospective studies of couple relationships have focused on married couples, have spanned the early years of marriage and have not addressed parent specific stressors.

Knowledge is therefore sparse about whether predictors of short term dissolutions can be generalized to parental dissolutions in the late child-rearing years. Dissolutions of both marriages and cohabiting unions are investigated. To capture parental couple relationships in particular, child related strains are investigated along with other predictors of relationship dissolutions.

Interpersonal communication relationship dissolution - Wikipedia

Moreover, the temporal context is organized around the age of the study child, as opposed to time of marriage. This ensures that dissolutions occurring in the preschool years are grouped together, whereas all dissolutions occurring in the adolescent offspring years are analysed together in another separate group.

We will specifically investigate: In accordance with the positive and negative affect models, we expect that expression of criticism will be associated with short term dissolutions, while low levels of emotional support will predict long term dissolutions. Moreover, we are aiming to identify potential timing effects of child related strains, as well as of other stressors, strengths and vulnerabilities.

Questionnaires were later sent by mail to mothers when the children were aged 8, 12—13, 14—15, 16—17 and 18—19 years. Only the respondents who were initially living with the father of the index child were included in this study. All respondents who participated at T4, or who had reported relationship dissolution at an earlier time point, were included in the analyses. Seven respondents were omitted from the analyses because they were widows, or had missing data regarding relationship status at T4.

Altogether respondents were thus included in the analyses. Out of these, respondents had dissolved from their partner, whereas respondents were still living with the father of the child at T4.

Attrition and representativeness Non-respondents at T1 did not differ significantly from respondents with respect to maternal age, education, employment status, number of children and marital status Mathiesen et al. The dissolution rate in the sample was 41 percent over the entire period; closely resembling the dissolution rates among Norwegian parents in general Statistics Norway At T1 the majority of respondents 70 percent were working full or part time; six percent were students, whereas the remaining 24 percent were not working.

The index child was the firstborn child in 51 percent of the families, and in 46 percent of families the index child was a boy.

Some breakups may serve a distinct, positive change for one of the partners if there is abuse or other negative factors in the relationship. Breakup factors[ edit ] No relationship is established with the thought that it will end with heartache and grief, at least experienced by one of the couple. This is countered with our social need to belong which usually trumps the risks.

Hill, Rubin, and Peplau conducted a study in where heterosexual couples agreed to complete a questionnaire about their relationship for two years. Only couples survived the two years together, but it was the information gathered from the couples that provided substantial information on breakup factors.

Predictors[ edit ] Dissimilarity among the couples in age, educationand physical attraction Those who said they "loved" each other stayed together compared to those who simply "liked" each other Process[ edit ] Hill et al. Women were more likely to be the initiators of change. Impact[ edit ] Men were hit harder by the breakup than the women in the Hill et al.

Pre-existing doom[ edit ] Couples who are badly matched from the start, no matter what the initiation action involved, it could not overcome personal differences Mechanical failure[ edit ] When things break, where communication may be poor or interactions go badly. Without communication a relationship will never survive. Process loss[ edit ] Relationships that die because they do not reach their potential, albeit a slow death, because of poor productivity or communication on one or both of the members of the dyad Sudden death[ edit ] New information on a partner can produce sudden death of the new relationship with a trust violation.

Davis described three conditions that produce "sudden death" in a relationship: Breakup strategies[ edit ] There are at least fifteen strategies used to terminate relationships and are set apart by whether they are unilateral or bilateral and indirect or direct Baxter, Intrapsychic stage[ edit ] Intrapsychic stage begins with one partner who is dissatisfied and secretively searches for a way to "fix" the relationship.

Vaughan states that uncoupling begins with a secretand Duck asserts that the secret of unhappiness is kept that way through the intrapsychic stage. Dyadic stage[ edit ] Dyadic stage where the dissatisfied partner decides to fix the problem by confronting the other partner, thus entering into uncharted territory.

Interpersonal communication relationship dissolution

This may not fix what is wrong and just continue to draw out the relationship until the unhappy partner becomes determined to depart, which will move the relationship into the next phase. Social stage[ edit ] Social stage is when the partners devise their accounts of how the breakup happened and how they will present it to their social circles.

If it is in fact the end, they will cross over into the final phase of relationship dissolution. Grave-dressing stage[ edit ] Grave-dressing stage is simply the "attempt to bury and describe the relationship" stage.

Partners now create an acceptable story about their love and loss, do whatever cognitive work, including introspectionattributionrationalizationand reassessment of self and other, which is necessary in order to get over the deceased relationship.