Logos - Wikipedia
1 Three quotations from a recent volume, U. Dill and The defeat of myth by reason, of mythos by logos, was once considered denial of any essential relationship between the ancient idea of mythos and modern notions of. In the Phaedo,however, Socrates appears as a philosopher who appeals to myth, not just causally as one might quote a line of Homer, but thoroughly and. denial of any essential relationship between the ancient idea of mythos and modern notions of 1 Three quotations from a recent volume, U. Dill and. C. Walde.
Isocrates does not provide a single definition of logos in his work, but Isocratean logos characteristically focuses on speech, reason, and civic discourse. Hellenistic Judaism In the Septuagint the term logos is used for the word of God in the creation of heaven in Psalm Philo of Alexandria[ edit ] Philo c.
The concept derives from John 1: A prepositional phrase, for example, where the definite article is not expressed, can be quite definite in Greek, [in Hebrew Both Plato and Aristotle used the term logos along with rhema to refer to sentences and propositions. Neoplatonist philosophers such as Plotinus c.
Plotinus referred back to Heraclitus and as far back as Thales  in interpreting Logos as the principle of meditation, existing as the interrelationship between the hypostases —the soulthe intellect nousand the One. The comparison with the Christian Trinity is inescapable, but for Plotinus these were not equal and "The One" was at the highest level, with the "Soul" at the lowest.
Logos Islam The concept of the logos also exists in Islamwhere it was definitively articulated primarily in the writings of the classical Sunni mystics and Islamic philosophersas well as by certain Shi'a thinkers, during the Islamic Golden Age.
In Sufism, for the Deist, no contact between man and God can be possible without the Logos. The Logos is everywhere and always the same, but its personification is "unique" within each region.
Nevertheless, he constantly referred to myths throughout his writings. As Platonism developed in the phases commonly called Middle Platonism and neoplatonismwriters such as PlutarchPorphyryProclusOlympiodorus, and Damascius wrote explicitly about the symbolic interpretation of traditional and Orphic myths.
The resulting work may expressly refer to a mythological background without itself becoming part of a body of myths Cupid and Psyche. Medieval romance in particular plays with this process of turning myth into literature. Euhemerism, as stated earlier, refers to the rationalization of myths, putting themes formerly imbued with mythological qualities into pragmatic contexts. An example of this would be following a cultural or religious paradigm shift notably the re-interpretation of pagan mythology following Christianization.
European Renaissance[ edit ] This panel by Bartolomeo di Giovanni relates the second half of the Metamorphoses. In the upper left, Jupiter emerges from clouds to order Mercury to rescue Io. Nineteenth century[ edit ] The first modern, Western scholarly theories of myth appeared during the second half of the nineteenth century  — at the same time as the word myth was adopted as a scholarly term in European languages.
This movement drew European scholars' attention not only to Classical myths, but also material now associated with Norse mythologyFinnish mythologyand so forth. Western theories were also partly driven by Europeans' efforts to comprehend and control the cultures, stories and religions they were encountering through colonialism. These encounters included both extremely old texts such as the Sanskrit Rigveda and the Sumerian Epic of Gilgameshand current oral narratives such as mythologies of the indigenous peoples of the Americas or stories told in traditional African religions.
These ideas included the recognition that many Eurasian languages—and therefore, conceivably, stories—were all descended from a lost common ancestor the Indo-European language which could rationally be reconstructed through the comparison of its descendant languages. They also included the idea that cultures might evolve in ways comparable to species. This theory posited that "primitive man" was primarily concerned with the natural world. It tended to interpret myths that seemed distasteful European Victorians—for example tales about sex, incest, or cannibalism—as being metaphors for natural phenomena like agricultural fertility.
According to Tylor, human thought evolved through stages, starting with mythological ideas and gradually progressing to scientific ideas.
He speculated that myths arose due to the lack of abstract nouns and neuter gender in ancient languages. Anthropomorphic figures of speech, necessary in such languages, were eventually taken literally, leading to the idea that natural phenomena were in actuality conscious beings or gods.
When they realize applications of these laws do not work, they give up their belief in natural law in favor of a belief in personal gods controlling nature, thus giving rise to religious myths. Meanwhile, humans continue practicing formerly magical rituals through force of habit, reinterpreting them as reenactments of mythical events. Pars II Ilias [Hildesheim: Clarendon Press, According to some interpreters, mythos in Homer would designate a specific kind of speech, i.
Martin, The Language of Heroes: Speech and Performance in the Iliad [Ithaca, N. Cornell University Press, ]. Iliad, XV,and Odyssey, I, Chantraine, Dictionnaire Etymologique de la langue Grecque, See Preface of F. Nietzsche, Zur Genealogie der Moral.
Myth - Wikipedia
Schofield, The Presocratic Philosophers [Cambridge: Cam- bridge University Press, ]. Freeman, The Pre-Socratic Philosophers: Nestle, Vom Mythos zum Logos: Nestle, Vom Mythos zum Logos; and J.
Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy London: Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy. Penguin, Etudes de psychologie Historique Paris: Cambridge University Press, Abbagnano, Dizionario di Filosofia Torino: Utet, Meier,Bd. On this point, see, for instance, F. Adorno, La filosofia antica.
Feltrinelli, ; and G. Colli, La nascita della filosofia Milano: Adelphi, ; La sapienza greca I: Adelphi, ; La sapienza greca II: For a general reconstruction of this debate, see H. Kranz, Fragmente der Vorsokratiker Zurich: Weidmannsche Verlags- buchhandlung,Fragm.
Paradoxically, it is Aristotle himself who transmitted to us this fragment. This seems to suggest that also the common view of Aristotle has been deeply shaped by successive interpreters.
Morgan, Myth and Philosophy from Presocratics to Plato, Peloponnesian War, I, On this point, see G. Tutti gli scritti Milano: Rusconi,74, Suhrkamp,29— A Genealogical Approach 21 Seine Dialoge in der Sicht neuer Forschun- gen, ed.Beautiful quotes about relationships - Love - Relationships - Life - Problems
Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, ; K. Geiser, Platons ungeschriebene Lehre Stuttgart: Klett Verlag, ; G. Reale, Per una nuova interpretazione di Platone. Rilettura dei grandi dialoghi alla luce delle dottrine non scritte Milano: Vita e Pensiero Phaedrus C— E.
Logos and Mythos: A Response to Walter Burkert
The extent to which literacy influenced the rise of philosophy is still very contro- versial. Among those emphasising the impact of literacy for the rise of abstract rational thought, see J. Cambridge University Press ; E.
Havelock, The Muse Learns to Write: Yale University Press, Among the critics, see R. Finnegan, Literacy and Orality: Studies in the Technology of Communication Oxford: Blackwell, ; and R. Cambridge University Press, ; both of whom emphasize that literacy is, in the end, what a specific culture makes of it, i. II d—e; III a—c.
II e—b; III a—c. III c; d.
In fact, we cannot even say that we possess the texts of his esoteric lessons: Colli, La nascita della filosofia. A similar point is made by Abbagnano, Dizionario di Filosofia, ; and by P.
Ellipses, Whereas in the Metaphysics we only have two examples for the word mythos L. Olms-Weidmann, ],in the Poetics, we have fifty J.