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Friday, December 23, - It was in the early s that authorities started to build temporary check dams across the Payaswini river to prevent salt water from the sea entering it.
The flow of salt water into the Payaswini had created huge distress to about families making a living out of farming on the banks of the river, and the whole of Kasaragod Municipality which depends on the river for their drinking water.
Government officials found a solution in building temporary check dams by paving sand filled plastic sacks across the river. This continued every year since then and the river is paved with about 17, sacks at a time now.
Across a period of almost 36 years, however, the river has been filled with lakhs of plastic sacks.
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Though the local people requested the authorities to build a permanent check dam, they continued to drop the sacks regularly. The plan to construct a permanent check dam was initiated at the beginning of the s and was sanctioned in There was a lag and in about Rs 24 crore was sanctioned.
They began the work and stopped in between. Even now the partial structure remains there. Muneer Bavikkara, Secretary of the Action Council, says that since the authorities take soil from the shore to fill gaps in the check dam, the lands nearby are under serious threat of soil erosion. It began a fresh pattern in Mappilappattu where the poetry was in pure Malayalam language, unlike the earlier works that involved use of Arabic, Kannada and Tamil.
The poem was also known as the Chakkeeri Badr, to distinguish it from the other works on the same subject by other poets. He also authored a Malayalam-Arabic-Sanskrit dictionary and is considered one of the major Mappila poets of the 19th century.
He was well versed in Tamil, Sanksrit and classical music. It was a translation of a Tamil work by same name. This period was characterized by the rise of theological reform movements and nationalist mobilization in the Malabar. Songs of the era also involved themes of Pan-Indian nationalism and the Independence movement against the British.
The Malabar Rebellion gave birth to a large variety of songs of this genre. Often referred to as Mahakavi Ubaid, he was both a poet and a researcher of Mappilappattu, documenting a large collection of Mappila songs popular in the North Malabar through oral tradition.
His historic speeches and rendering of hitherto unheard kissa pattukal at the Kozhikode Sahitya Parishath conference in and similar conferences drew attention of the intellectuals of Malayalam literature to the rich literary traditions of Mappilappattu. Jameel is a poet widely associated to the kathu pattu Letter songs genre of Mappila songs. His most popular works remain the letter and reply duet Ethrayum bahumanappetta ente priya bharthavu vayikkuvan Oh my dear respected husband and Abu Dhabeelullorezhuthupetti A letterbox in Abu Dhabi.
The former is a wife's letter to her husband abroad in Abu Dhabi requesting his return, while the latter is the husband's reply to his wife. The lyrics of the song referred in particular to the sexual and emotional needs of the woman and generated both praise and controversy within the community. The second song, composed as the husband's reply was also based on his interactions with the diaspora Mappila community during his visits to the Middle East in the late s. It described the hardships and emotional dilemma faced by the migrant workers separated from their families.
The songs created a huge impact on the whole diaspora community across different religions at the time prompting many to leave their jobs and return to their homeland for good. Though the kathu pattu songs in the form of letters existed before the works of S.
Jameel, it was his works that popularized the genre amongst the common people of the Malabar. In an era that preceded the printing press, oral traditions played an important role in the religious education of the Mappilas, especially those who could not read or write. After almost every uprising of the 19th and 20th centuries, songs eulogizing the heroism of the participants and idealizing their sacrifice were composed and propagated by Mappila bands which went around the countryside singing them.
Ballads were also popularized through group singing at social and domestic functions. The songs provoked the Mappila population against the British authorities to the extent that a large number of them including the publications of the Cherur Padappattu were confiscated and destroyed by the authorities.
The songs on the Malappuram shahids provide the earliest description of an armed struggle between the Mappilas and the Jenmi landlord class in the pre-Mysore era. Pg ,Vol 1, Asian Educational Services, Roland Miller also quotes from this ballad in "Mappila Muslims of Kerala: The Malabar Rebellion also spawned a large amount of Mappila songs. A song sung at a Khilafat meeting at Tirurangadi in described the aims of the Khilafat Movement in a mindset of complete harmony with the National movement led by Mahatma Gandhi: Even the prisoners of the rebellion like Tannirkode Ossankoya used to compose songs in their letters to their relatives.
They are sung in chorus in connection with marriage festivals, often accompanied by rhythmic clapping by women. This brought about a huge interest in the Kathu pattu letter song genre of Mappilappattu.
The lyrics of these songs often connected closely to the lives of the migrant workers and their families and it popularized this genre of Mappilappattu. One such ballad was called the Mappila Ramayana deals with the story of the Hindu mythological figure Sri Rama. The presence of female poets in Mappilappattu literature long predated the first female presence in Malayalam literature. A large number of Mappila songs also had female subjects as their main theme.
After marriage they lived together at the residence of the petitioner at Trivandrum for three days. During the period they spent one day at Kovalam and thereafter they lived at the residence of the respondent at Kundara. According to the petitioner, even during the first night, the respondent preferred to sleep all alone in his bed and the petitioner was directed to sleep on another bed. On the second day they spent their night at the Guest House at Kovalam.
The petitioner would allege that on that day she found that the respondent was having anxiety neurosis and he was literally shivering in front of the petitioner.
It was also alleged that even though the petitioner took initiative, the respondent did not show any inclination to consummate the marriage.
Therefore, the petitioner suspected that the respondent was impotent. The petitioner gradually discovered that the respondent was playing fraud on her.
The story of having secured employment in Saudi Arabia and the related matters were all utter falsehood. The papers and documents shown at the time of negotiation, before marriage, were all fabricated. The petitioner's father was a senior I.
Officer under the Government of Kerala. Only after the marriage she has come to know that the respondent did not have an adequate income from his employment to support his family as his two brothers were students at that time. The petitioner has agreed to marry the respondent on the specific assurance given to him that he has secured a lucrative job in Saudi Arabia.
The respondent was deliberately cheating the petitioner and her parents. Therefore, she prays for a decree declaring that the marriage in a nullity on the ground that her consent was obtained by fraud. She has also prayed for a decree of divorce on the ground that the respondent has treated her with cruelty and refusing to consummate the marriage.
She also alleged that the respondent had demand Rs. As the money was not paid, the petitioner has alleged, that she was treated with cruelty by the respondent by abusing and insulting her. She was even subjected to physical torture and as the life of the petitioner became miserable and unbearable she was forced to leave the matrimonial home on 5th December and thereafter she has been living separately along with her parents.
She issued a lawyer notice on 23rd June to the respondent demanding for return of the amount of Rs. He had also threatened the petitioner with dire consequences if she does not return to his house. Therefore, the petitioner also prays for a decree of divorce on the ground on cruelty,desertion and impotency. The respondent filed a counter denying the allegation of fraud, cruelty, desertion, and impotency. He would contend that in the advertisement the respondent had specified both the options of higher studies and Gulf employment by stating "doing Computer Postgraduation", "holding Chartered Gulf employment on leave provision".
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In the lawyer notice, dated 21st July the petitioner sought for a decree of divorce on the ground on cruelty, desertion and impotency of the respondent and there was no allegation regarding cheating on fraud.
Therefore, the allegation of fraud in the Original Petition is an after thought introduced to suit the allegations in the petition. The points to be decided in this case are the following: Whether the consent of the petitioner was obtained by fraud? Whether the petitioner was treated with cruelty and 3. Whether the petitioner was deserted for a period of two years and upwards? The evidence consists of the oral evidence of PWs. A1 to A7 on the petitioner's side and the evidence of RWs 1 to 4 and Exts.
B1 to B12 on the respondent's side. At the time of hearing, Dr. Sebastian Champappilly, learned counsel for the petitioner, submitted that he does not press for the allegation regarding impotency and his prayer is only for a decree on the ground of fraud, cruelty and desertion, Points 1 to 3 can be discussed together. Admittedly, the marriage proposal appeared in the matrimonial column in Malayala Manorama, dated 3rd Octoberwhich is marked as Ext.
The advertisement reads as follows: Thomas Madathimparambi, Thiruvalla- B1 is the reply, dated 11th Octoberwherein the respondent's father states: His joining date being expected on December ". On the basis of the above data, the petitioner and her parents decided to go ahead with the proposal and the engagement was celebrated on 18th November He would contend that after training in Spain, two Engineers employed in Traco Cables got overeas employment.
The petitioner as PW1 states that the respondent and his people represented to her that he has secured an employment in Gulf. It is submitted by the counsel for the petitioner that the respondent is the only earning member of his family and the income for the livelihood of the respondent's family is the income of the respondent. His father being a retired teacher he had to meet the education expenses of the respondent's two brothers. So attracted by the statement that he has secured an employment in Gulf, the petitioner's parents decided to settle the marriage.
The petitioner states that after due enquiry, her father came to know that the respondent has only a temporary job in the Traco Cables Ltd.
He has secured a No Objection Certificate for M. The engagement was celebrated one and a half months after the letter, dated 4th November In the reply Ext.
B1, the respondent's father has stated that he is working as an Engineer in the Traco Cables. Therefore, the statement that he was a Government Engineer cannot be said to have been made with intent to defraud the petitioner. The petitioner could have ascertained whether the respondent was a Kerala Government Engineer or not.
Regarding the allegation that he is doing Computer Postgraduation also she could have collected the details especially when her father was working as a senior I. Officer under the State of Kerala.
The next question is whether the respondent is holding a chartered gulf employment. The respondent as RW1 stated that he had disclosed all his education qualifications and job to the petitioner and her parents. B5 is the letter issued by the General Manager of Traco Cables asking his willingness to undergo training in Spain on condition to serve the Company for five year after training.
This would go to show that there was a proposal to sent Engineer of Traco Cable Ltd. According to him, it is a stepping stone for seeking employment abroad. He has also stated that if he gets an order for training in Spain, that will be a preference for getting employment in Saudi Arabia as Production Planning Engineer.
He would also state that two senior Engineers in his Company have already obtained job in Senior Arabia.
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Even Diploma holders were sent abroad. Regarding his experience, he states that he had worked in the Kerala Water Authority and in Industrial Training Department at Kollam as Guest Lecturer and he was asked to join Saudi Arabia by one of his friend Najeeb, who is now working there and so he had a fair chance to go abroad.
B6 is the No Objection Certificate for joining the M. So, the statement that he was selected for M.