The Deeper the Love, the Deeper the Hate
PSYCHOLOGY'S LOVE-HATE RELATIONSHIP WITH LOVE their underlying strategy and theory about developing a psychology of love that gets at the. In light of the complex nature of love and hate, it is plausible that when people describe their relationship as a love-hate relationship, they may be referring to. Increasingly, empirical research has been carried out on the relationship between love and hate. However, traditional psychological theories.
Increasingly, empirical research has been carried out on the relationship between love and hate. However, traditional psychological theories have mainly focused on love, especially romantic love. Love has been defined as an action Swensen,attitude Rubin,experience Skolnick,and even as a prototypical emotion Fehr and Russell, ; Post, ; Sober, ; Wyschogrod, Collectively, these definitions suggest that love is a multi-faced phenomenon Ekman, ; Izard, ; Tomkins, Hate, within the context of a romantic relationship, arises mainly from a relational betrayal.
Researchers have proposed a concept related to romantic hate, romantic jealousy, which describes the negative attitudes, anger, and fear associated with having a relationship partner Yoshimura, Love and hate are related to each other in a complex manner; the methodological approaches used by previous researchers have limited effectiveness in exploring the intricate relationship between love and hate.
The Deeper the Love, the Deeper the Hate
In addition, there has been little research on the psychological mechanisms that could explain the interrelations between love and hate. Therefore, our study investigates how these two affects are related.
To pursue such a research objective, one must consider how best to induce varying levels of feelings of love. Previous studies have found that attraction is a crucial condition for the development of romantic love Cutler et al. Similarity, rather than complementarity, plays a key role in attraction Berscheid and Reis, ; Luo and Klohnen, ; Hudson et al.
Many aspects of similarity have been studied in relation to attraction. In the current study, we focused on similarity in ideologies. That is, persons with similar ideologies defined here in terms of values and interests tend to form longer lasting and more harmonious relationships Buunk and Bosman, ; Lemay and Clark, Ideological similarity also implies commonalities in behaviors which further contribute to mutual attraction in the context of romantic love Schafer and Keith, From this perspective, similarity may be a key factor that influences the degree of love.
In addition, researchers found that differences in excellence levels, such as those relating to ability and achievement, between partners would also be an important factor influencing romantic relationships Conroy-Beam et al.
Psychology’s Love-Hate Relationship with Love: Critiques and Affirmations | Metanexus
In the present study, we manipulated the level of similarity and the level of excellence to induce different levels of love. That is, we concurrently varied the levels of similarity and excellence of different targets. We explored whether participants felt stronger love for a target who was more similar to themselves when the targets and participants were of the same level of excellence.
Additionally, we were also interested in whether participants have different emotional reactions toward different target persons in the context of romantic love and hate.
We examined two research questions in the current research. First, would there be greater feelings of love between two persons if they were more similar to each other? In this study, we implemented a paradigm similar to what has been used in previous research Takahashi et al. The characters in the scenario included one protagonist and three targets.
Participants read the scenario and imagined that they were the protagonist and were in a romantic relationship with one of the target. First, a fixation cross hair was presented for ms followed by the experimental stimuli Lover A, Lover B, and Lover C that were displayed for ms or until response. The top line in each stimuli-containing rectangle indicated a target person, the middle line indicated the domain of comparison excellence and similarityand the bottom line indicated the specific traits in these two domains.
Part 2 consisted of two phases: This figure presents a schematic depiction of the stimuli and rating task design of Part 2 hate. Each trait was followed by a subsequent negative event, which was presented for ms or until response.
The top line indicated a target person, and the bottom line indicated a negative event.
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- Psychology’s Love-Hate Relationship with Love: Critiques and Affirmations
A ms inter-stimulus interval was interleaved between each trait and negative event. First, participants were asked to read a story and imagine that they were the protagonist see Supplementary Material. Each vignette involved the protagonist and three targets. Participants were asked to recall the information relating to each target through free recall. Participants were then asked to imagine that they were in a romantic relationship with the target. Ratings and Measurements We used E-Prime 2.
After the participants studied the materials, they completed the rating task on the computer and then completed the PLS in both Part 1 and Part 2. Participants gave one love score per item per target person in Part 1 and one hate score per negative event per target person in Part 2, as well as two PLS scores before and after the negative events.
In Part 2 of the experiment, the background characteristics of A, B, and C were unchanged; however, we created vignettes in which the targets betrayed the protagonist, for example by having an affair with someone of the opposite sex see the negative events in Supplementary Table S1.
Upon completion of Part 2, participants completed the PLS again to assess their feelings of love toward the three targets. Analysis We used several analyses to test our hypotheses. The scores from love ratings, hate ratings, and the PLS items were averaged within subjects prior to the analyses. Simple effect tests were performed when the interaction effect was significant. Additionally, we used a 3 target: Next, we used a 3 target: Tests of simple main effects were performed when an interaction effect was statistically significant.
Further analyses of the simple main effects showed that the degree of love toward target A 5. Further analyses of the simple main effects showed that the degree of passionate love toward target A Further analyses of the simple main effects showed that the degree of hate toward target A 5. Further analyses of the simple main effects showed that the PLS score for target A Love and Hate The 3 targets: The love and hate level of all participants in response to the 3 targets: The corresponding partial correlation analyses revealed similar results A: Discussion This study used an experimental paradigm to study the relationship between romantic love and hate.
The current study provided support for a link between the two affects and insights into the influence of similarity in romantic relationships. We found that people have different emotional reactions toward different target persons in the context of romantic love and hate.
The relationship between romantic love and hate was revealed to be more complex than expected. First, our results showed that feelings of love were influenced by similarity.
That is, individuals, who were experimentally induced to experience feelings of love, felt stronger love toward someone of the opposite sex who was similar to them, thus, supporting our first hypothesis.
Previous studies have examined whether similarity or complementarity played a more vital role in mutual attraction Berscheid and Reis, and concluded that the former was more important. This view has also been supported by research looking at mate preferences Luo and Klohnen, and quality of marital relationships Hudson et al. Previous studies had mostly recruited couples or partners who were already in a relationship, and there is little direct evidence on whether the similarity of the two individuals had a crucial role in the development of a romantic relationship.
A recent study Conroy-Beam et al. To some extent, they considered the equivalence in social status between both partners to be an important factor relating to relationship satisfaction. In our study, however, when the participants were presented with two potential partners equal to them in excellence, participants perceived greater love for the one who was more similar to themselves.
Relatedly, similarity also played an important role in mate selection. Our findings complemented the findings of other research in this area. Individuals who were similar to each other easily formed good impressions of each other within a short time. Second, we found significant associations between romantic love and hate in the context of a romantic relationship. When presented with negative events with three different target persons, participants most hated the person whom they had loved the most previously.
Therefore, love and hate are indeed related. As Alford proposed, hate is an imitation of love and also a type of relationship with others and oneself.
That is, in managing their relationships with others, people are at the same time managing themselves and their psyches Alford, Especially from the perspectives of young couples in romantic relationships, hate is also a reflection of love. The relationship between love and hate can be explained from different perspectives. Romantic hate may be rooted in romantic jealousy.
Previous research proposed emotional jealousy and cognitive jealousy as constituents of romantic jealousy. Moreover, cognitive jealousy is directly related to relationship dissatisfaction between lovers Elphinston et al. Previous studies have also found a positive relationship between romantic love and jealousy. That is, the more one loves a person, the more sensitive one becomes when encountering threats to the relationship Mathes and Severa, ; Orosz et al.
Thus, individuals experience more love and more hatred toward the same lover. Thus, in our context, the more one loves a person, the more psychological investment one makes. At the same time, our results showed a significant interaction between targets A vs. C and affects love vs. In other words, although the three targets were associated with the same negative events, the level of hatred varied across the three targets.
If, initially, the individual loved the target the most, the degree of love is still higher than that of hate after the negative event. However, when the individual did not love the target as much initially, the degree of love would be markedly lower than that of hate.
These results illustrate the complexity associated with romantic love and hate. For the person whom one loves the most or even hates, love may still be dominant in the context of betrayal.
This hate is a reflection of love and a feeling of sorrow. However, for the person one does not love, feelings of hate are stronger than those of love. This hate perhaps has its roots in the moral dimension, which mainly concern social judgments about the quality of a person. This is why people experience such pain upon betrayal in a romantic relationship. These individuals also have long-term concerns about whether their partners are willing to accept them in a closed relationship.
The authors proffered this as the reason behind love and hate, and that this phenomenon could be observed in any relationship. Needless to say, the complex precursors of love and hate can be interpreted in many ways.