An essential mission of literary and psychological writing is to construct a neuroses; he was always already writing social theory on a grand scale. clearly trace the development of the therapeutic relationship, its slow burn. psychological well-being, and the development and utilization of Ryff's scale. spirituality can mediate the relationship between context and psychological well-. Abstract. This paper performs the reading the thematic relationship established between Psychology and Literature in two perspectives: through the.
The traits are in the person; the types in an external viewpoint. Thus, for example, according to the particularities of each classification, there are philistines versus bohemians, apollineans versus dyonisiacs, and rationalists versus empiricists. Spranger, when focusing his analysis on fundamental human values, admits theoretical, aesthetic, social, political, and religious types. It is not that a person fully belongs to one of these types, but rather we may understand a person by examining his values through these denominations.
It should be emphasized that, as abstractions created to support these schemes of understanding, none of these typologies explains the individual as a whole. There are authors who advocate the use of ideal types derived from rational methods such as those of Sprangerand authors who advocate the use of empirical types which presume to cover a broad area of personality of many persons, extremes of a continuum, such as introverted versus extroverted individuals ; cultural types influenced by their participation in groups, whether typical or dissident, such as a trader, a farmer, a barber, a priest, a politician, etc.
However, although being a type who is part of a social group, a personality is regulated by traits i. When dealing with the question of types in Psychology, Allportpp. However, still according to the author p. An intellectual product par excellence since it requires the exercise of reasoning and of the skills needed to execute complex tasks, creation, according to Sartrep. Judging that a coachman whose face we represent in an obscure maner has mustaches is seeing his face appear with mustaches If, in the imagining mode, we think of individual objects, these will be the same objects that will appear to our consciousness Actually, it is rare for us to think of a an isolated class.
Most of the time our thoughts are the establishment of relationships between classes. Sartre,pp. However, this imaginary conceived by common sense differs from the collective imaginary, in which it is the subjectivity of a person that is presented to the unconscious, and differs from the personal imaginary in which the images of a people and of a culture are presented to the reader. In turn, the collection of subjectivities and cultural images of a people is conceived by Durand as a response to the human anguish in the face of the finitude of life i.
The E-Dictionary of Carlos Ceia n. According to Ceia, imagination, as early as stated by Aristoteles trans. As explained by Ceia, the original Greek meaning of the concept, maintained in the German term Phantasie, refers to what is present in the first great theoreticians of the subconscious, Freud and Jung, corresponding to how they always used the term.
In turn, literary studies of the 18th century emphasized the creative power of imagination as an essential activity of artistic creation, in clear opposition to its meaning in Antiquity i. This idea that it is necessary to feel to be able to imagine will not represent for Plato a way to achieve knowledge, but rather a way to obtain a sort of second-hand copy of reality. This argument was taken up again by Descartespp. With the European romanticism, which attributed to imagination the status of a subjective alternative in order to achieve less pragmatic forms of knowledge, and with the questions raised by Kant, which admitted imagination as the synthesis of human perceptions to which the images that represent them are proposed, a new theory of imagination was established, whereby imagination was proposed as a privileged pathway towards subjective knowledge at the expense of pragmatic knowledge.
Within this context, Coleridge, one of the creators of romanticism in England, by admitting that the full vitality of the senses can be experienced only through imagination, elevated the latter to the creative power of God. This opinion was shared by the German philosopher Schlegel, who understood imagination as the ability to associate images at the consciousness level, in contrast to fantasy, which appears to operate with images arising from the frontier with the unconscious.
The 20th century, however, revealed a greater interest in the product originating from the creative imagination, highly approximated to personal experience, than in its theorization.
According to the German psychologist Rudolf Arnheimit is the task of creative imagination to enable man to translate the physical appearance of objects into appropriate forms for given contexts, this being due to the psychological reason that, in the human perception and thinking, the similarity is not based on a meticulous identity, but rather on the correspondence of essential structural characteristics.
However, according to the author, something new is only valid up to the point it serves to interpret a universal topic of human experience. Using works of art as examples of what can be perceived by man through his vision, the behaviorist Arnheim conceived that, since it is dynamic and not static, an image does not represent arrangements but rather interactions of its own tensions, leading to the reasoning that it is not the eye that constructs the interaction of objects in a visual field, but rather that it is the dynamics of shapes that determines how this visual field is perceived.
On this basis, defining a work of art as an expressive form created for our perception through the senses or the imagination expressing human feeling, as done by Susan Langeris highly acceptable on the horizon of literary studies. Regarding the creative process in the literature, Wellek and Warren proposes that modern studies may be closer to the relative role played by the conscious and the unconscious, since a writer is a specialist in the association ingenuitydissociation judgment and recombination creating a new whole from elements experienced separately of words, which he considers to be valuable symbols of themselves or in terms of what they represent.
Nevertheless, psychology can also study the various methods of composition, correction and rewriting practiced by writers. The usefulness of this? To discover gaps that will permit the writer to probe what occurs in his laboratory of artistic production and to inhibit inconsistencies and distortions in the work of art he intends to create, although always being aware of the fact that, even though these are practices of creation, they do not belong to a work of art, but rather to its elaboration.
Why Literature Needs Psychology
It is definitely possible to state that fictional characters appear to be psychologically true, especially in cases in which the author has sought in psychology the figures and interpersonal relations he has used in his work of art.
But these characteristics overlap so constantly that the complex situations in which they are involved and on which they act deserve more acute observations than the possibility of fitting them into a specific social type.
An example of this is represented by works constructed using the stream of consciousness technique. In these works, a faithful reproduction of the mental processes presented is less relevant han the possibility of dramatization offered by the technique used.
In other words, it is not the psychological truth, regardless of the emphasis on the notion of the reality of creation, that will give artistic value to a work of art, but rather the way this truth was manipulated to underscore coherence and complexity so that something really new is obtained. In literary studies, the type is investigated as one of the possibilities of a character to be created. A common practice in historical novels, the presence of the type, according to Kaufmanis justified by the necessity of the extistence of representatives of a given milieu or social class in whose fictional destinies are reflected important trends and historical changes.
By representing society or a specific social group, their literary construction becomes possible, among other aspects, thanks to the attention placed by the author on the meaning of his words and to the practice of orality established by this attention between locutors and interlocutors in the plot of the text, which guarantees the important linguistic and imaging representation for the insertion of the characters in the universe of a determined epoch.
As plane characters, their role is tied to a specific situation or to a generalized conduct, a characteristic that also distances them from caricature, which involves a unique quality or idea taken to the extreme, so that such distortion purposefully evokes a satire.
Thus, identified by their profession, behavior and social class i. The Study of Laws. It is certainly possible to use psychology to clarify the interpretation and valuation of literary works, and it is also possible to proceed in the same manner regarding sociology, philosophy, history and other disciplines which, supported by their theoretical constructs, can help the reader to understand the fundamental concepts that may have been used to elaborate a literary plot.Top 4 facts that will change your view on relationships
It is by attracting a language that is appropriate for the production of meaning that a literary work, as it exercises the principle of synthesis, provides a communicable language and becomes able to be mimetic.
However, Wellek and Warren alerts to the danger of directing one's investigative interests at drafts, rejected versions, exclusions and other original cuts made by the authors: Specifically used to deal with what one or more criteria cause something to be considered literature, the term literality, defined as a fictitious discourse or the imitation of daily language acts and in relation to certain properties of language Culler,has theoretically and methodologically relevant aspects of the literary object.
By representing reality or by self-representation, a literary work may show realistic intentions, with a character being dentified as a social individual; conventional semantic intentions with the text acting as a mediator of the instances that occur in the narrative; simulation intentions, in which what can be said or not said is always indirect; and social symbolization intentions, with the narrative involving a consideration of the manner how society symbolizes itself.
This presentation of fundaments for a theory of artistic production, however, deserves a specific discussion, such as that performed by Bordieuwhich is beyond the purposes of the present study. The Study of the Effects of Literature on the Readers. Since the traditional interpretation intended to elucidate hidden meanings, Iser wanted to see the meaning as the result of an interaction between text and reader, as an effect that is felt by the reader and not as a message that must be found in the text.
This active complementation by the reader causes him to wonder at any instant whether the formulation of the meaning he is performing is adequate for the reading he is carrying out.
And it is by means of this condition that the interaction of the text with the reader occurs, something quite different from reading the text looking for a hidden message or based on a unique interpretation.
Roman Ingarden provided a useful explanation for this investigation, stating that the aesthetic object is constructed only through the act of cognition by the reader. By adopting this precept of Ingarden, Iser exchanges the focus of the text as an object with the text in potential, born from the results of the act of reading.
In order to examine the interaction between the text and the reader, Iser looks for those qualities of the text that render it legible, deserving to be read, or that influence our reading, as well as the charactistics of the reading process that are essential for the comprehension of the text. This resides in the structure of the act and in the textual structure. Later, with a more in-depth dependence on the terminology of Ingarden, he differentiates text, concretization of the text and work of art.
The first differentiator beween the text and a work of art is the artistic aspect, which is located here by the author for us to read, and which must be better conceived as a potential expected achievement. The concretization of the text, in contrast, refers to the product of our own productive activity; it is the realization of the text in the thinking of the reader, achieved by filling out the blanks or openings in order to eliminate what is indeterminate.
Finally, a work of art is not a text or a concretization, but is something between them.
Why Literature Needs Psychology | Literary Hub
It occurs at the point of convergence between the text and the reader, a point that is never fully defined. A work of art is characterized by its virtual nature and consists of various overlapping procedures. One of them involves the dialectic of protention and retention, two terms borrowed from the phenomenologic theory of Husserl Protention is understood as the state of expectation that prepares the reproduction of a memory i. It is through ptotention and retention that the texts duplicate, moving from the original texts to new works in the presente.
Iser applies them to our activity of reading successive sentences. When facing a text, we constantly project expectations that can be satisfied or disappointed; at the same time our reading is conditioned by the renunciation of sentences and concretizations. Because our reading is determined by this dialectic, the basic activity of the reader, according to Iser, resides in the constitution of the meaning stimulated by the text, with this meaning taking shape through the connection of the constitutive elements of the text and of its articulation and combinations responsible for its coherence and cohesion.
According to Iser, it is by filling out the gaps and the blanks of a text that the reader will reach its meaning. The gaps and blanks should be understood as everything that was not said explicitly in the text but was only tacitly suggested. This involvement with the text is seen as a type of tangle in which what is strange will be understood and assimilated. Iser's viewpoint is that the reader's activity is similar to an ongoing experience. The gaps also interrupt a good continuation i.
The reader must recur to his imaginative activity in order to establishe the meaningful coherence of the text. Constructed in this manner, the horizon of expectations of the reader undergoes additions of new reading expectations through the reader's interpretation of the text he is reading. However, if the reader refuses these interpretations of the text on the basis of the ideological positions he may hold, he will have difficulty in identifying what it has been agreed to call, in the Aesthetic of Reception, the implicit reader i.
The fictional repertory, the textual strategies, the variants of reading, the implcit reader and the gaps of the text are processes that complete the perspective of the text in itself and its reception by the reader, whose space is guaranteed in the studies of his critical successors.
By considering that a major work of art always includes a vision of the world that, whether discussed or denied, is an integral part of its meaningDante Moreira Leite seeks to present some questions about literary works for which contemporary psychology has its own perspective, differing from the perspectives of other sciences and of literary criticism itself, such as imitation,suggestion, the peception of shapes, the description of characters, the learning of taste, among others, although without aspiring to the presentation of a general or total solution for its analysis.
What is the legitimacy of this process? According to the authorit is the necessity to explain art based on the characteristics of an individual once the loss of social belief in the supernatural is recognized, as well as the loss of belief in the hereditary determination of individual characteristics and in sociological explanations as the origin of these differences.
And, starting from Romanticism, a more marked subjective tendency towards artistic themes and towards interest in criticism is added to these facts. Psychology in Literature A Psychology as a Perspective for the Reception of Literature Leite believes that, in the creation of a work of art, the author goes beyond the superficial and apparent aspects of everyday life reached from a historical and sociological perspective in the search of what, by being expressed about the human psychological condition, will continue to be valid in highly diverse situations.
Within this context, significant contributions of contemporary psychology such as the description of the behavior and inner experience of an individual as a spontaneous activity, the continuity between the different degrees of problem solving and of the creative capacity and the attempt to interpret the unconscious life through dynamic forces are relevant resources in the attempt to explain the creation and permanence of a literary work.
However, the application of psychological concepts to an analysis of a work of art should be guided by the possibilities of the explanations that such concepts have for this task i. Too much pathology, says Roth, which is too particular, too strange to generalize in the way that literature ought to allow for.
As though pathology were not universal.
As though there were any difference between mind and brain. And as though the scope of human knowledge were a finite resource, to be doled out between disciplines like wartime rations. Rather than berate the neuronovelist for letting icky science into her writing, we ought to commend her for broadening the purview of literature to include insights gleaned from other territories.
If we want literature to inhabit the full measure of human experience, it must stretch to accommodate new ways of knowing the world. And if we want to catch glimpses of the truths that govern human culture and behavior, we must open ourselves to the wisdom, no matter how surprising or counterintuitive, of strangers working in strange lands. One of the most successful cross-pollinators of literature and psychology has been Dr.
Irvin Yalom, a Hopkins-trained psychiatrist, clinical and academic psychologist, and writer. Yalom has written scholarly texts, short stories, and novels. His model of existential psychotherapy represents an approach to science colored by a deep knowledge of literature; his literary writing is similarly informed by his years of study and practice in psychology.
He is interested, above all, in how to cope with the meaninglessness and isolation of existence, and so his writing is beloved by readers across disciplines and preferences.
Ginny and Yalom each wrote logs of their therapy sessions together, which are therein collected in chronological order. The accounts differ in style and content, yet the reader can clearly trace the development of the therapeutic relationship, its slow burn, its moments of spark and combustion. It is the kind of book that enlarges your idea of what storytelling can do.
It is also a reminder that the field of psychology is both a body of writing and a practice, which two cannot be disentangled one from the other. The theory exists in service of the praxis, which is ultimately a pursuit of wellness through counseling, medication, and a variety of other treatments.
Psychology, that is to say, is about doing. Even its pure research arm, which, like all scientific research, seeks knowledge partly for its own sake, harbors an outsize focus on the pragmatic applications of its findings.
Literature, as an art, can and should not embrace such a functional aim. This is a core distinction between the two. Which is not to belittle the therapeutic value of reading. Beyond the immediate pleasure of the text, good books kindle empathy, expand our sense of what is possible, offer escape both out of and into the world. But does reading make us happy? Can it heal the wounds of early life that dog us into adulthood? Much if not most of the emotional work we do in this life is, in the words of Edward St.
For reading is a solitary endeavor, and wellness exists between people, like a gift, or a secret. This is the founding premise of talk therapy, a cornerstone of psychological praxis.
Skeptics ridicule the notion of talking oneself out of depression—and they are right to. That goes double for other, severer disorders of mind. But what naysayers miss is that therapy, in its modern form, is not about cure, but connection. Talk therapy is the Big Questions of literature made flesh. I began therapy soon after my college downswing, and have been in and out since.