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India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with King George The region is contested to this day and two other Indo-Pakistan wars The sovereign and head of state of the dominion of India was a hereditary The King in relation to independent India held the following official style and. Each of these South Asian states had different motives that compelled them to take India is characterised here as the 'Expedient Dominion', Pakistan the ' Siege .. in Pakistan, in terms of its spatial relationship with the various overlapping. 4 For a discussion of the chronology of India Pakistan relations of this period, see for example: would play no part in the body politic; Pakistan founded as a Muslim state, a .. partition, which were jointly handled by both the Dominions.
In Decemberfollowing a political crisis in East Pakistan, the situation soon spiralled out of control in East Pakistan and India intervened in favour of the rebelling Bengali populace. The conflict, a brief but bloody war, resulted in the independence of East Pakistan. The war saw the first offensive operations undertaken by the Indian Navy against an enemy port, when Karachi harbour was attacked twice during Operation Trident and Operation Python.
These attacks destroyed a significant portion of Pakistan's naval strength, whereas no Indian ship was lost. After the surrender of Pakistani forces, East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh. Kargil War Main article: Kargil War During the winter months ofthe Indian army vacated its posts at very high peaks in Kargil sector in Kashmir as it used to do every year. Pakistani Army intruded across the line of control and occupied the posts.
Dominion of Pakistan
Indian army discovered this in May when the snow thawed. This resulted in intense fighting between Indian and Pakistani forces, known as the Kargil conflict. Pakistan later withdrew from the remaining portion under international pressure and high casualties. Other territorial claims You can help by adding to it.
March The relations are locked in other territorial claims such as the Siachen Glacier and Kori Creek. Water is cited as one possible cause for a conflict between the two nations, but to date issues such as the Nimoo Bazgo Project have been resolved through diplomacy. East Bengali refugees InIndia recorded close to 1 million Hindu refugees, who flooded into West Bengal and other states from East Pakistan now Bangladeshowing to communal violence, intimidation and repression from authorities.
The plight of the refugees outraged Hindus and Indian nationalists, and the refugee population drained the resources of Indian states, which were unable to absorb them. Although many Indians termed this appeasement, Nehru signed a pact with Liaquat Ali Khan that pledged both nations to the protection of minorities and creation of minority commissions.
Khan and Nehru also signed a trade agreement, and committed to resolving bilateral conflicts through peaceful means.
Chapter two - India and Pakistan: The new dominions
Steadily, hundreds of thousands of Hindus returned to East Pakistan, but the thaw in relations did not last long, primarily owing to the Kashmir conflict. Afghanistan—India relations and Afghanistan—Pakistan relations Afghanistan and Pakistan have had their own historic rivalry over their border, the Durand Linewhich numerous Afghan governments have refused to recognize as the border.
This has led to strong tensions between the two countries and even military confrontationsresulting in Pakistan as victorious. Pakistan has long accused Afghanistan of harboring Baloch separatist rebels and attempting to sponsor separatist tendencies amongst its Pashtun and Baloch populations, going as far back as the s. It has been believed that Pakistan during the s, then under Zulfikar Ali Bhuttoin retaliation began supporting Islamist factions in Afghanistan.
The later Soviet intervention in Afghanistan to prevent further escalation and eventual Islamist takeover of the country proved disastrous afterwards.
The United States and its allies feared direct Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and began aiding Pakistan's support for the Afghan Mujaheddin, in hopes of crippling the Soviet Union. The Soviet-Afghan war turned out to be a stalemate with heavy casualties on all sides and costly for the Soviets. Under international agreement, the Soviets withdrew.
But various Afghan factions fought one another and their external supporters, including the Soviet Union, Iran, Pakistan and others disagreed on which should be in power.
Continued rival proxy support led to the civil warin which Pakistan supported in the Talibanseeking to secure its interests in Afghanistan and providing strategic support, while India and Afghanistan's other neighbors backed the Northern Alliance. After the Taliban defeated the Northern Alliance in much of Afghanistan in the Afghan Civil Warthe Taliban regime continued to be supported by Pakistan — one of the three countries to do so — before the 11 September attacks.
India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. India established its links with the Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government, with the United Nations. India's relations with AfghanistanPakistan's neighbor, and its increasing presence there has irked Pakistan. The Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in KabulAfghanistan on 7 July at 8: Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action".
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relationsthe Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmirincluding the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed.
Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmirwhich is cited as further proof by the Indian government. Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India.
A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists. A crisis in Indo-Pakistan relations developed when large scale fighting between their armed forces broke out on 5 August On 4 September, the Security Council expressed concern at the deteriorating situation along the ceasefire line in Kashmir and called upon India and Pakistan to have all their armed personnel withdraw to their own side of the line.
Although East Pakistan had a larger population than West Pakistan, the people from the east felt that they did not receive a fair share of power or privilege. Growing tension between West Pakistan and East Pakistan intensified following general elections in Despite obtaining a majority of seats, the Awami League, which drew its support almost entirely from East Pakistan and with no influence in West Pakistan, was prevented from forming the central government.
This widespread agitation and unrest was met by a massive and brutal military crackdown. This military action finally led to a full-scale civil war between East and West Pakistan in March On 6 DecemberIndia announced that it had recognised the provisional government of Bangladesh in East Pakistan, which further damaged relations between India and Pakistan. During this month, the United Nations Security Council demanded that hostilities cease in all areas of conflict.
Dominion of India - Wikipedia
In East Pakistan, Pakistani forces surrendered on 16 December followed soon after by a ceasefire on the western front. Both leaders agreed that the basic issues and causes of conflict, which had bedevilled the relations between the two countries for the last 25 years, would be resolved by peaceful means. In turning to the ongoing conflict in Kashmir they agreed that: In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the ceasefire of December 17,shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognised position of either side.
Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from the threat or the use of force in violation of this line. This continuing conflict has resulted in the loss of over 20, lives. It was estimated in that overIndian troops were deployed in Kashmir.
It is worth noting that for many Kashmiris full independence from both India and Pakistan is the desirable goal. Both India and Pakistan have strong domestic political motivations for maintaining their existing stances on Kashmir. For both, control of Kashmir is a validation of their existence.
No Pakistani Government can afford to appear half - hearted in assisting Kashmiri Muslims in their fight against Indian control. As Kashmir is an area of strategic importance to India in maintaining the security of its border with China, its loss would also be considered by India to be detrimental to its security interests.
Agreements were made between Indian and Kashmiri leaders in andbut their provisions are no longer relevant or acceptable to the stakeholders in As already noted, there has been substantial loss of life. Significant harm has been done to the economies of the two countries, with both spending large sums on military equipment.
For India particularly, there has been the high cost of maintaining large security forces in a constant state of combat readiness. Overland trading routes along their 1, kilometre border remain underdeveloped, and the success of the regional trading organisation South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation — SAARC has been limited. For over half a century they have been living in an uneasy security environment of mutual distrust and hostility. Apart from the three wars in past decades, Pakistan and India have also edged toward the brink of war at least twice since the mid s - once in the winter of —87 and again in the Spring of - sparked by on-going conflict in Kashmir.
Some analysts suggest that the fear of nuclear weapons use held both countries back from provoking outright war.
On the matter of nuclear power, one account in reported: Clearly the instability in South Asia has serious ramifications, not only for the region but also for the world community. During the s, when nuclear weapons testing took place above ground, India took the lead in seeking to have such activities banned.
The Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto government in the s precipitated a major reorganization and reorientation of the bureaucracy, however, which resulted in a noticeable decline in both the morale and the standards of the bureaucracy.
An accomplished politician, he won independence for Pakistan within seven years of the Lahore Resolution and was hailed by his followers as the Quaid-i-Azam Great Leader. As governor general, he assumed the ceremonial functions of head of state while taking on effective power as head of government, dominating his prime minister, Liaquat Ali Khan the Quaid-i-Millet, or Leader of the Nation.
To these roles, he added the leadership of the Muslim League and the office of president of the Constituent Assembly. Although Jinnah had led the movement for Pakistan as a separate Muslim nation, he was appalled by the communal riots and urged equal rights for all citizens irrespective of religion. Jinnah died in September only thirteen months after independence--leaving his successors to tackle the problems of Pakistan's identity.
Jinnah's acknowledged lieutenant, Liaquat Ali Khan, assumed leadership and continued in the position of prime minister.
India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
Born to a Punjabi landed family, Liaquat used his experience in law to attempt to frame a constitution along the lines of the British Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. He failed in large part because neither the Muslim League nor the Constituent Assembly was equipped to resolve in a parliamentary manner the problems and conflicts of the role of Islam and the degree of autonomy for the provinces. Liaquat's term of office ended when he was assassinated in Rawalpindi in October He was replaced by Khwaja Nazimuddin, who stepped down as governor general; Nazimuddin was replaced as governor general by Ghulam Mohammad, the former minister of finance.
The Muslim League, unlike Congress, had not prepared itself for a postindependence role. Congress had constitutional, economic, social, and even foreign policy plans in place before independence and was ready to put them into effect when the time came.
The Muslim League was so preoccupied with the struggle for Pakistan that it was poorly prepared for effective government. Its leaders were largely urban professionals whose political base was mainly in areas that were in India. In the areas that had become Pakistan, its base was weak. Landlords with ascriptive and inherited privileges were uncomfortable with procedures of decision making through debate, discussion, compromise, and majority vote.
The Muslim League was a party with little grassroots support, a weak organizational structure, powerful factional leaders, and decisions made at the top. Although Ghulam Mohammad tried to exercise the "viceregal" power that Jinnah had used so powerfully as governor general, concern for office and the fruits of power were more important to most of the politicians than the evolution of ideology or the implementation of mass programs. The effect of this lack of direction was shown most clearly when the Muslim League was routed in the election in East Pakistan by the United Front--mainly a coalition of the Awami League and the Krishak Sramik Party, led by two one-time Muslim League members, Hussain Shahid Suhrawardy and Fazlul Haq, who ran on an autonomist platform.
Other parties established during this period included the leftist National Awami Party a breakaway from the Awami Leaguewhich also supported provincial autonomy. Islamic parties also made their appearance on the electoral scene, most notably the Jamaat-i-Islami. The Muslim League was held responsible for the deterioration of politics and society after independence and had to answer for its failure to fulfill people's high expectations. There was a rising level of opposition and frustration and an increasing use of repressive laws inherited from the British or enacted by Pakistan that included preventive detention and rules prohibiting the gathering of more than five persons.
In the Public and Representative Office Disqualification Act PRODA allowed the government to disqualify persons found guilty of "misconduct," a term that acquired a broad definition. In the Security of Pakistan Act expanded the powers of the government in the interests of public order. The armed forces also posed a threat to Liaquat's government, which was less hostile toward India than some officers wished.
The authors of what became known as the Rawalpindi Conspiracy were tried in secret, convicted, and sentenced to imprisonment.
All were subsequently released. Pakistan's first Constituent Assembly was made up of members of the prepartition Indian Constituent Assembly who represented areas that had gone to Pakistan. The body's eighty members functioned as the legislature of Pakistan. As a constitution-making body, the assembly's only achievement was the Objectives Resolution of Marchwhich specified that Pakistan would be Islamic, democratic, and federal.
But the assembly could not reach agreement on how these objectives would take form, raising fears among minorities and concern among East Bengalis. Other important matters remained equally problematic-- the division of executive power between the governor general and the prime minister; the distribution of power between the center and the provinces; the balance of power, especially electoral, between the two wings; and the role of Islam in the government.
With the assassination of Liaquat, resolution of these issues became unlikely. During the years after Liaquat's assassination, none of these problems were resolved, and a major confrontation occurred between the governor general, Ghulam Mohammad, a Punjabi from the civil service, and the prime minister, Nazimuddin, a former chief minister of united Bengal and now chief minister of East Bengal.
Ghulam Mohammad, who relished the trappings of dominance earlier held by Jinnah, asserted his power by declaring martial law in in Punjab during disturbances involving the Ahmadiyyas, a small but influential sect considered heterodox by orthodox Muslims, and a year later by imposing governor's rule after the Muslim League defeat in East Bengal, not permitting the United Front to take office.
When Nazimuddin attempted to limit the power of the governor general through amendments to the Government of India Act of then still the basic law for Pakistan, as altered by the India Independence Act of Ghulam Mohammad unceremoniously dismissed him in Apriland then the following year appointed his own "cabinet of talents," dismissing the Constituent Assembly.
The so-called cabinet of talents was headed by Mohammad Ali Bogra, a minor political figure from East Bengal who had previously been Pakistan's ambassador to the United States. Significantly, the cabinet also included both military and civil officials. Chaudhuri Mohammad Ali, who had been head of the Civil Service of Pakistan, became minister of finance. General Mohammad Ayub Khan became minister of defense while retaining his post as commander in chief of the army.
Major General Iskander Mirza, a military officer who was seconded to civilian posts, including becoming governor of East Bengal when Ghulam Mohammad imposed governor's rule on that province, became minister of home affairs. The cabinet thus provided an opportunity for the military to take a direct role in politics. Ghulam Mohammad was successful in subordinating the prime minister because of the support of military and civil officers as well as the backing of the strong landed interests in Punjab.
The facade of parliamentary government crumbled, exposing the military's role in Pakistan's political system to public view. The revived Constituent Assembly convened in