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The Language poets are an avant garde group or tendency in United States poetry that It played down expression, seeing the poem as a construction in and of . Mary Margaret Sloan's Moving Borders: Three Decades of Innovative Writing by relationship to "Language poetry", even after decades of fruitful engagement. Poems about Relationships examine love within the context of overcoming life's challenges. Relationship Poems are about couples learning to understanding. This Pin was discovered by Janine Sloan. Discover Cute Love Poems, Love You Poems, Love Poem For Her, Qoutes About Love. Visit Relationship Quotes .
But it was less attuned to questions of gender and race: The dominance of these Founding Fathers can be seen in the British reception of Language poetics, a reception coming largely from the Left, which was keenly interested in but also highly critical of the doctrines put forward in "The New Sentence" and "Artifice of Absorption," and "The Death of the Subject," but had little to say about specific poems. What, then, of the women poets in the original movement? Interestingly, their background was more literary and artistic than that of, say, Andrews and Bernstein, who had studied political science and philosophy respectively.
Susan Howe began her career as an artist and was very much influenced by concrete poetry, especially the work of Ian Hamilton Finlay and Tom Phillips. Johanna Drucker, was trained as a printmaker and visual poet and wrote her PhD thesis at Berkeley on the Russian avant-gardist Iliazd.
Hickman is to my mind one of the great unsung heroes of the so-called innovative poetry scene. Unaffiliated with a university or even a specific movement, he published Temblor from his home on Cahuenga Blvd. In the much despised San Fernando Valley above Hollywood. Temblor had no editorial board, no mission statement and, until the last few issues, no grant money Hickman simply published the poetry that interested him a good chunk of it "language poetry," but also the related poetries coming out of Olson-Duncan school, the Objectivists, and the "ethno-poeticists" associated with Jerome Rothenberg: Temblor was a portfolio with a 9 x inch page which allowed for visual design, as for example in Leslie Scalapino's "Delay Series" 4 and a long 28 page section from Susan Howe's Eikon Basilike 9.
The magazine introduced the work of poets from other countries and cultures: Here, then, was an opening of the field that nevertheless avoided the merely eclectic. Like any editor Hickman had his idiosyncrasies a number of poets, no doubt, were published simply because they were Los Angeles friendsyet, with rare exceptions, no effort was made to recruit the mainstream.
We cannot, alas, ask Hickman himself and there is no mission statement to guide us. But I suspect there were three reasons. First, I imagine the editor felt these other poets got enough of a hearing in the mainstream press and, if he was to edit and produce a journal, he might as well introduce lesser-known poets. Secondly, publication of the established poets would have been too expensive.
Hejinian makes a strong case for Stein's brand of "realism" as "the discovery that language is an order of reality itself and not a mediating medium that it is possible and even likely that one can have a confrontation with a phrase that is as significant as a confrontation with a tree, chair, cone, dog, bishop, piano, vineyard, door, or penny" T 3 In the course of her talks, Hejinian shows us how one can analyze such poetic language, how, for example, in the first of the Tender Buttons, "A Carafe, That Is A Blind Glass," the first phrase "A kind in glass and a cousin" "binds carafe with blind phonically.
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How does one "unhook" a father, and why? Here pun "Sea heat unbearably white" and burlesque, as in the last line's play on "Into each life, a little rain must fall," complicate the story of this "shadow of a maid" carrying her tray on the forbidden patio.
Throughout Temblor 4 which contains the complete Conduit by Barrett Watten and Demo by Ron Sillimanthe Language program is operative even if--and here we come to Hickman's own predilection-- emotion, if by no means personal confession, is brought back into the equation. Further along in Fanny Howe's "Scattered Light" we read the following ten-line poem: It was a night to be left alone To dig out fifteen pounds of pumpkin guts Stick in a candle and water the curtains I phoned a friend with What do you want Money and luck they said When I asked the angel in the bottle She fluttered and cried Sex, too, squeezes out a lot of pleasure Till nothing is left but the neck T 4 52 Failed domesticity probably looms as large here as it did in "Hollandaise," but the relationship between the pumpkin carving of the opening, the allusion to the Cumean Sybil trapped eternally in her bottle, and the image of the sex act hollowing out the body like an empty pumpkin cannot be transformed into any sort of coherent narrative.
The neck of the bottle? The neck of the woman as external to the emptied out body? The neck as all one has without money or luck? Oddly, my own image if I am to follow McCaffery and become a co-constructor of the poem's meaning is that of a chicken neck the hard ugly piece of flesh rather like a distorted penis or "stick in a candle" that remains when one has hollowed out the chicken, as opposed to the pumpkin, guts the liver, heart, and other giblets, the fat along the inside chicken wall.
Phonemically, in any case, the monosyllabic "neck" in final position connotes an unpleasant cut of some sort. Stayed away though its Doing so stirred me. Wine on my shirtsleeve, Wind on my neck. T 4 36 Again, love standing the poet up, again that ugly word "neck" in final position. But here in Mackey's jazz-inspired lyric, rhythm is quite other an allusion to the Dogon myth of the Andoumboulou fusing with the "attempt to sing the blues," as in the drumbeat of: Tilted sky, turned earth.
Bent wheel, burnt we. And here we come to a major shift in the nineties, when what could loosely be called a Language poetics has come into contact with one of color. A signal example is the poetry of Harryette Mullen, to which I now turn. I had come from Texas to Northern California.
I was in graduate school at Santa Cruz. So, at that point when I would. I had a context for it. But [they] read the same theory that my professors did in fact they probably read twice as much, and had read the same theory earlier than a lot of my professors had, and they were highly intellectual poets. And Mullen jokes about her fellow minority graduate students at Santa Cruz, who used the argument that it was all very well for white male poets to renounce "voice" but that "We need our subjectivity.
In her drive to problematize her own subjectivity, she began to incorporate into the language poetics that animated Trimmings, her book of prose poems based on Stein's Tender Buttons, the actual verbal games of her own culture the childhood jump-rope rhymes and "pseudo-courtship, formulaic exchanges" of pre-adolescence, like the male "What's cookin' good lookin'?
Tender white kid, off-white tan.
Snug black leather, second skin. Fits like a love, an utter other uttered. Bag of tricks, slight hand preserved, a dainty. A solid color covers while rubber is protection. Tight is tender, softness cured. Alive and warm, some animal hides. Ghosts wear fingers, delicate wrists. This glove poem takes its inspiration from Stein but is really quite different. Mullen keeps her eye more firmly on the object than does Stein, whose cushions, umbrellas, and hats quickly give way to other related items, often quite abstract.
Mullen's poem immediately raises the issue of color with the punning of "Tender white kid," and "off-white tan. But also an unease as to the source of leather gloves that is quite unSteinian: Do those ghost fingers belong to the predominantly white glove wearers?
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Mullen doesn't press the point: On the one hand, one could read this particular playful prose poem in conjunction with the short paragrammatic pieces cited by McCaffery in his essay for "The Politics of the Referent" poems by Bruce Andrews, bpNichol, and McCaffery himself. On the other, Mullen's piece is more overtly political and engaged in the contemporary discourse about gender and race.
Indeed, Mullen internalizes the theoretical paradigm of Language poetics so as to rethink her own tradition. In a lecture called "Visionary Literacy: Ron Silliman, in the introduction to his anthology In the American Tree, appealed to a number of young U. During the s, a number of magazines published poets who would become associated with the Language movement.
Poetics Journalwhich published writings in poetics and was edited by Lyn Hejinian and Barrett Wattenappeared from to Certain poetry reading series, especially in New York, Washington, D. Poets, some of whom have been mentioned above, who were associated with the first wave of Language poetry include: This list accurately reflects the high proportion of female poets across the spectrum of the Language writing movement.
Poetics of language writing: It developed in part in response to what poets considered the uncritical use of expressive lyric sentiment among earlier poetry movements. In the s and s, certain groups of poets had followed William Carlos Williams in his use of idiomatic American English rather than what they considered the 'heightened', or overtly poetic language favored by the New Criticism movement.
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New York School poets like Frank O'Hara and the Black Mountain group emphasized both speech and everyday language in their poetry and poetics. In contrast, some of the Language poets emphasized metonymysynecdoche and extreme instances of paratactical structures in their compositions, which, even when employing everyday speech, created a far different texture. The result is often alien and difficult to understand at first glance, which is what Language poetry intends: Silliman considers Language poetry to be a continuation albeit incorporating a critique of the earlier movements.
Watten has emphasized the discontinuity between the New American poetswhose writing, he argues, privileged self-expression, and the Language poets, who see the poem as a construction in and of language itself. In contrast, Bernstein has emphasized the expressive possibilities of working with constructed, and even found, language. Gertrude Steinparticularly in her writing after Tender Buttons, and Louis Zukofskyin his book-length poem A, are the modernist poets who most influenced the Language school.
Many of these poets used procedural methods based on mathematical sequences and other logical organising devices to structure their poetry.
This practice proved highly useful to the language group. The application of process, especially at the level of the sentencewas to become the basic tenet of language praxis. Stein's influence was related to her own frequent use of language divorced from reference in her own writings. The language poets also drew on the philosophical works of Ludwig Wittgensteinespecially the concepts of language-gamesmeaning as use, and family resemblance among different uses, as the solution to the Problem of universals.