Muslim Marriage: Beliefs, Rules & Customs
Jews believe in one god and his prophets, with special respect for Moses as the . Christianity has also had a problematic relationship with Islam. Muslims believe that Allah (the Arabic word for God) sent his revelation, the Quran, to the prophet outlaw alcohol, and dictate how animals should be slaughtered for food. The Prophet Muhammad did not try to abolish slavery, and bought, sold, They ( slaves or servants) are your brothers, and Allah has put them under your command. The relationship between slave and master in Islam is a very different .. Slavery was harder to outlaw in areas far from central government. Muslim marriage beliefs are practiced around the world and embrace a For example, all Muslims believe there is no god but Allah, that Muhammad The warrant for this is to be found in both the Koran and in the personal life of the Prophet. More secular Muslim countries have outlawed forced marriages, while others.
Ratifying this contract usually involves some kind of ceremony—the practice of which varies greatly across Islam. The ceremony must also be attended by at least two witnesses who are adults of sound mind and can testify to the observance of the law.
Many, if not most, Muslim couples go further than this simple ceremony. The Prophet is quoted as calling for marriage to be announced in public and accompanied by the beating of drums, which has led many to believe that a large public ceremony is preferable to the private mahr.
After the ceremony, the marriage should be consummated. The Koran even has advice for the marriage night: The law on this subject can get extremely complex, and it varies wildly from one country to the next, but the general trend is toward a partnership in all material things. Even in thoroughly secular countries, the terms of the nikah are usually respected by civil courts. This is true even in countries that lack a strong Muslim influence, such as the United States.
Muslim Divorce Divorce among Muslims is a much-discussed and argued topic. Islam permits the dissolution of marriage for a number of reasons, such as infidelity and incompatibility. The attitude is neatly summed up by the observation that: In contrast to Christian and Jewish marriage practices, marriage in Islam tends to be less individualistic and come in a wider variety of forms and arrangements.
The ceremonies celebrating the union range from something as simple as a meeting and brief conversation to a lavish public spectacle.
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Where it comes to matters matrimonial, Muslim marriage customs are broad enough to fit nicely into just about every society on Earth. The paradox A poignant paradox of Islamic slavery is that the humanity of the various rules and customs that led to the freeing of slaves created a demand for new slaves that could only be supplied by war, forcing people into slavery or trading slaves.
Muslim slavery continued for centuries The legality of slavery in Islam, together with the example of the Prophet Muhammadwho himself bought, sold, captured, and owned slaves, may explain why slavery persisted until the 19th century in many places and later still in some countries. The impetus for the abolition of slavery came largely from colonial powers, although some Muslim thinkers argued strongly for abolition.
Slaves came from many places Unlike the Atlantic slave traders, Muslims enslaved people from many cultures as well as Africa. Slaves could be assimilated into Muslim society Muhammad's teaching that slaves were to be regarded as human beings with dignity and rights and not just as property, and that freeing slaves was a virtuous thing to do, may have helped to create a culture in which slaves became much more assimilated into the community than they were in the West.Prophets and Outlaws - Texas Home
Muslim slaves could achieve status Slaves in the Islamic world were not always at the bottom of the social hierarchy. Slaves in Muslim societies had a greater range of work, and took on a wider range of responsibilities, than those enslaved in the Atlantic trade. Some slaves earned respectable incomes and achieved considerable power, although even such elite slaves still remained in the power of their owners.
Muslim slavery was not just economic Unlike the Western slave trade, slavery in Islam was not wholly motivated by economics.
Although some Muslim slaves were used as productive labour it was not generally on the same mass scale as in the West but in smaller agricultural enterprises, workshops, building, mining and transport. Slaves were also taken for military service, some serving in elite corps essential to the ruler's control of the state, while others joined the equivalent of the civil service.
Another category of slavery was sexual slavery in which young women were made concubines, either on a small scale or in large harems of the powerful.
BBC - Religions - Islam: Slavery in Islam
Some of these women were able to achieve wealth and power. These harems might be guarded by eunuchs, men who had been enslaved and castrated. Where did the slaves come from? Muslim traders took their slaves from three main areas: Non-Muslim Africa, in particular the Horn Central and Eastern Europe Central Asia The legality of slavery today While Islamic law does allow slavery under certain conditions, it's almost inconceivable that those conditions could ever occur in today's world, and so slavery is effectively illegal in modern Islam.
Muslim countries also use secular law to prohibit slavery.
Bernard Lewis, The Shaping of the Modern Middle East, Although the vast majority of contemporary Muslims abhor slavery, it remains part of their religious law. The world was very different in those days, and practices that seem profoundly unethical to modern minds were common and accepted.
During the formative stages of shari'a and for the next millennium at least there was no conception of universal human rights anywhere in the world.
Slavery was an established and lawful institution in many parts of the world throughout this period Doing so would have estranged many of the tribes that Muhammad sought to bring together, and severely disrupted the working of society. Prohibiting slavery in the context of seventh-century Arabia apparently would have been as useful as prohibiting poverty; it would have reflected a noble ideal but would have been unworkable on an immediate basis without establishing an entirely new socioeconomic system.
Judaism and Islam, But this was a problem, since Islam placed a high value on human dignity and freedom. The fact that slavery is a major concern in Islamic law no doubt stems from the prevalence of slavery at the time when Islam was instituted combined with the fact that the Qur'an clearly presents universal freedom and human dignity as its ideal society.
Its recommendation that slaves be freed is on the same plane as its recommendation that the poor be clothed and the hungry be fed. Judaism and Islam, So the early Muslims restricted and regulated slavery to remove some of its cruelties, but accepted that it was legal. The most that shari'a could do, and did in fact do, in that historical context was to modify and lighten the harsh consequences of slavery and discrimination on grounds of religion or gender Shari'a recognized slavery as an institution but sought to restrict the sources of acquisition of slaves, to improve their condition, and to encourage their emancipation through a variety of religious and civil methods.
Nevertheless, slavery is lawful under shari'a to the present day. The answer is that slavery is legal under Islamic law but only in theory. Slavery is illegal under the state law of all Muslim countries. Theoretically Islamic law lays down that if a person was captured in a lawful jihad or was the descendent of an unbroken chain of people who had been lawfully enslaved, then it might be legal to enslave them.
Nonetheless, should the legal condition for the enslavement of anyone be proven because he had been taken prisoner fighting against Islam with a view to its extirpation and persisted in invincible ignorance in his sacrilegious and infidel convictions, or because there did exist legal proof that all his ancestors without exception had been slaves descended from a person taken prisoner conducting a warfare of such invincible ignorance Islam would be bound to recognize such slavery as legal, even though recommending the freeing of the person and if possible his conversion, in this modern age.
Tabandeh, Muslim Commentary on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, quoted in 'Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na'im, Shari'a and Basic Human Rights Concerns, in Liberal Islam, ed Charles Kurzman, In practice, it seems virtually impossible that there will ever again be a jihad that is lawfully declared according to the strict letter of the law, and there are no living descendants of lawful slaves, which means that legal enslavement is unthinkable.
The law on slavery Islamic law recognises slavery as an institution within society, and attempts to regulate and restrict it in various ways. Different Islamic legal schools differ in their interpretation of Islamic law on slavery. Local customs in Muslim lands also affected the way slaves were treated. In the merchant cities of South-East Asia the sharia helped forge a legal distinction between slave and non-slave unknown in the rural hinterland.
More frequently, however, the application of the sharia outside the Middle East was tempered by local customs. This allowed Muslims in regions as distant as Somalia, India and Indonesia to argue for the maintenance of pre-Islamic and other local structures of slavery even if these ran counter to the prescriptions of the sharia. Gwyn Campbell; Frank Cass, The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia, Islamic law clearly recognises that slaves are human beings, but it frequently treats slaves as if they are property, laying down regulations covering the buying and selling of slaves.
It encourages the freeing of slaves, which has the good effect of diminishing the slave population of a culture and, paradoxically, the bad effect of encouraging those whose livelihood depends on slave labour to find new ways of acquiring slaves. Who can be enslaved Under Islamic law people can only be legally enslaved in two circumstances: The sharia limits were often either ignored or evaded, and many instances of slave trading by Muslims were in fact illegal, but tolerated.
The following groups of people cannot be made slaves: Free Muslims, but note that: Slaves who convert to Islam are not automatically freed Children born to legally enslaved Muslims are also slaves Dhimmis Islamic law gives slaves certain rights: Slaves must not be mistreated or overworked, but should be treated well Slaves must be properly maintained Slaves may take legal action for a breach of these rules, and may be freed as a result Slaves may own property Slaves can get married if their owner consents Slaves may undertake business on the owner's behalf Slaves guilty of crimes can only be given half the punishment that would be given to a non-slave although some schools of Islamic law do allow the execution of a slave who commits murder A female slave cannot be separated from her child while it is under 7 years old Female slaves cannot be forced into prostitution Slave rights to freedom Islamic law allows slaves to get their freedom under certain circumstances.
It divides slaves with the right to freedom into various classes: Slaves cannot carry out some religious roles Slaves can have only limited authority Slaves cannot be witnesses in court Killing a slave does not carry the death penalty in most schools of Islamic law Slaves are punishable under Islamic law if they commit a crime - although for some major crimes they only receive half the punishment of free people Muhammad and slavery Muhammad and slavery The Prophet Muhammad did not try to abolish slavery, and bought, sold, captured, and owned slaves himself.
But he insisted that slave owners treat their slaves well and stressed the virtue of freeing slaves. There are two different ways of interpreting this: This idea doesn't appear in early writings. For example, he personally ensured the freedom of Bilal, an African slave who had converted to Islam. Bilal was chosen as the first muezzin of Islam because of his beautiful voice.
A muezzin is the person who calls the community to the daily prayers, and is a position of great prominence and responsibility. It is this unparalleled combination of the secular and religious influence which I feel entitles Muhammad PBUH to be considered to be the most influential single figure in human history. On the other hand, the swaying ability of Hazrat Muhammad PBUH were and still prominent in both spiritual and social issues of life. Embodiment of Familiarity And Consideration There are two common ways of making people work, through use trustful relationship or by the use of force.
The former is attributed to gaining respect of public and is more helpful, while latter is thought to be enforcing fear in people and is less effective. Every successful person in charge achieves the trust and reliance of its group that it is managing, by showing a sense of belongingness and sympathy for them. He had enough empathy to know their sufferings and always used to be a part of them. Grievous to him is what you suffer; [he is] concerned over you and to the believers is kind and merciful.
By knowing His followers in person and building close relationships with them, He would appoint the best man for every task, who would readily accept the challenge in the way of Allah and His Prophet PBUHwhich eventually resulted in increased output and productivity. Courage and Determination The highly successful leaders are fearless to take any action in the favor of common good.
- Muslim Marriage: Beliefs, Rules & Customs
- Top Leadership Qualities of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
- Slavery in Islam
They are not negatively influenced by any kind of threats from the powerful figures. They not only take bold decisions, but also remain steadfast on their initial stance. First, He declared being the last Prophet and called people towards righteousness, knowing that they would repl. Second, when He was threatened to leave His preaching about Islam, He remained resolute and never backed down from His religious and moral endeavor. When migrating from Makkah to Madina, when kuffaars non believers gathered around the cave they were taking temporary refuge, Abu Bakr R.